Vol 30 No 4 (2021)

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | views: 490 | pages: 220-231

    Background and Aim: Subjective tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception caused by different factors and affects the patient’s quality of life. The tinnitus pathophysiology is not fully unders­tood; therefore, there is no effective treatment for tinnitus. Along with other methods, auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) may be helpful in understanding this condition and the involved struc­tures. This study aimed to review the applications of AEPs in tinnitus studies.
    Recent Findings: The studies investigating tinnitus were categorized into three groups of tinnitus pathophysiology, pre- or post-treatment/intervention evaluation of tinnitus, and objective diagnosis of tinnitus. Contradictory and unrepeatable findings were observed in each group.
    Conclusion: Discrepancies in the results of AEPs studies can be due to between-group and within-group differences, lack of proper matching in terms of tinnitus etiology and hearing loss, and difference in neurophysiologic models of tinnitus.

  • XML | PDF | views: 368 | pages: 232-240

    Background and Aim: Tinnitus is one of the most difficult challenges in audiology and otology. Previous studies have been shown that tinnitus may interfere with the function of central auditory system (CAS). Involvement of CAS abilities including speech perception and auditory processing has led to serious problems in people with tinnitus. Due to the lack of enough information about the impact of tinnitus on CAS and its function, and given that there is no standardized protocol for assessment and management of tinnitus, this study aimed to review the studies on the effect of tinnitus on the CAS function.
    Recent Findings: Sixteen eligible articles were reviewed. Temporal and spectral resolution, frequency differentiation and speech perception deficits were reported in patients with tinnitus, especially in background noise. This was reported even in tinnitus patients with normal hearing.
    Conclusion: Assessment of central auditory pro­cessing and speech perception in noise seems to be useful for proper management of tinnitus in clinical practice.

Research Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | views: 367 | pages: 241-255

    Background and Aim: Age related changes in cognitive functioning have been shown to vary depending on the task used. Thus, the study aimed to compare the responses of young and older adults to an auditory Stroop test that assessed spatial (responses to location of the stimuli) and semantic (responses to meaning of the stimuli) localization.
    The “Auditory spatial and semantic localization Stroop test”, developed as a part of the study was administered on 30 young adults aged 18 to 30 years and 30 older adults aged 58 to 70 years having normal hearing. The response accuracy and reaction time of the participants were determined for the words “right”, “left”, “front”, and “back.”
    Results: The older adults had significantly poorer response accuracy and reaction time than the young adults for both spatial and semantic localization tasks. Within each participant group, semantic localization had better response accuracy than spatial localization, while such differences in reaction time were found only in the older adults. In both groups, a congruency effect was seen for spatial but not for semantic localization when response accuracy was calculated, whereas it was observed only for semantic and not for spatial localization when reaction time was measured.
    Conclusion: The auditory Stroop test, which measures stimulus interference and cognitive skills, could be used as a simple tool to assess the same for stimuli presented through the auditory modality. This would be especially helpful in older adults who may demonstrate cognitive decline with ageing to auditory stimuli.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 322 | views: 439 | pages: 256-263

    Background and Aim: Hearing loss is and invisible disability that adversely affects the quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) combined with compassion-focused therapy (CFT) on behavioral problems and mother-child interactions in children with hearing impairment.
    Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design using a control group. The study population consists of all mothers of children with hearing impairment in Yazd, Iran. A total of 30 mothers were selected using a purposive sampling method, and randomly assigned into control (n = 15) and intervention (n = 15) groups. The intervention group received ACT combined with CFT at eight sessions of 90 minutes, one session per week, while the control did not receive any treatment. Data collections tool were the Parent-Child Relationship Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
    Results: The intervention had a significant effect on mother-child interaction and behavioral problems in children with hearing impairment.
    Conclusion: ACT combined with CFT can be used for intervention of mothers of children with hearing loss to reduce the behavioral problems of their children and improve their interactions with them.

  • XML | PDF | views: 386 | pages: 264-272

    Background and Aim: Rehabilitation services to individuals with hearing impairment were on hold with widespread COVID-19. So, rehabilitation services were mandated mainly through telepractice for children with hearing loss. Evaluating the effectiveness of tele-practise compared to face-to-face therapy is of utmost importance for evidence-based approaches. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the parent’s satisfaction with tele-listening training for children with hearing impairment during COVID-19.
    Methods: Fifty-four parents of children with hearing loss participated in the study. The parents satisfaction on tele-listening training was evaluated through the Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire in terms of 1) the audio and video quality during teletherapy; 2) equipment use 3) general parent-therapist interaction and communication during teletherapy; 4) service delivery and convenience; and 5) overall satisfaction with the teletherapy.
    Results: The results showed a higher parent satisfaction rating to avail rehabilitation services through tele-modality during the pandemic. Tele-listening training sessions had helped parents continue training their children at home with the therapist's guidance online. However, parents were not satisfied with their child's interaction with the therapist as they found it difficult to maintain attention throughout the online session.
    Conclusion: Although most participants agreed that tele session could not replace face-to-face auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) programs, most of them were satisfied with the outreach AVT program. These favorable responses from parents highlight that the digital revolution and other technological advancements support the service providers in Audiology, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • XML | PDF | views: 300 | pages: 273-279

    Background and Aim: Evaluating the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation (VR) in patients with vestibular lesions has always been a challenge. The questionnaires that are used for this purpose mostly show the degree of vestibular disability rather than providing information about improvement of vestibular dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate whether video head impulse test (vHIT) that is used for the examination of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), is a useful method for predicting the effectiveness of VR and has a correlation with dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) score.
    Methods: Participants were 42 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction (UPVH) undergoing VR. Patients were assessed before and after rehabilitation by the vHIT in all ipsilesional and contralesional semicircular can­als (SCCs) and the DHI. The changes in DHI score and VOR gain before and after rehabili­tation, were shown as ΔDHI and ΔVOR and their correlation was evaluated.
    Results: VOR gain from ipsilesional and contralesional SCCs was improved significantly after VR. There was a significant strong negative correlation between ΔVOR gain from ipsilesional SCCs and ΔDHI score but no significant correlation was found between the ΔDHI score and ΔVOR gain from contralesional SCCs.
    Conclusion: vHIT test is a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of VR. VOR gain is correlated with the DHI score. Therefore, the improvement in vHIT results in all three SCCs after VR may be a good predictor of the degree of improvement in dizziness-related disability.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 244 | views: 287 | pages: 280-286

    Background and Aim: Parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) and teachers' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (TEACH) questionnaires are used to assess the behaviors of hearing-impaired children in real-life situations. This study aims to compare the scores of PEACH and TEACH in children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using hearing aids.
    Methods: This is a double-blind two-period crossover study on 21 children aged 9-72 months with severe-to-profound SNHL using hearing aids. There were two 6-week periods of fitting Phonak Naida Venture SP hearing aids using the fifth version of the Desired Sensation Level (DSL v5) and the National Acoustics Laboratories’ nonlinear fitting procedure (NAL-NL2) prescriptions. At the end of each trial, the PEACH and TEACH questioners were completed through an interview with the parents and teachers, respectively.
    Results: There was a strong correlation between the PEACH and TEACH in total and subscale scores. There was no significant difference between the results of DSL v5 and the NAL-NL2 prescriptions for the total score and subscale scores of PEACH and TEACH.
    Conclusion: The PEACH score has a strong correlation with the TEACH score. These questionnaires are useful tools for indirectly assessment of hearing-impaired children’s communication skills. The DSL v5 and the NAL-NL2 prescriptions make no significant difference in the performance of children with severe-to-profound SNHL.

  • XML | PDF | views: 214 | pages: 287-293

    Background and Aim: Meniere's disease (MD) is one of the inner ear disorders associated with fluctuating hearing loss, vertigo, ear fullness, and tinnitus. Vestibular stimulation delas with the integrity of the peripheral vestibular system and may cause nystagmus due to the functional asymmetry between right and lef peripheral vestibular system. This study aimed to assess the vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) in patients with chronic unilateral MD and investigate the effectiveness of this test in detecting the affected ear in these patients.
    Methods: This study was conducted on 29 patients with chronic unilateral MD. For this purpose, spontaneous nystagmus (SN) and VIN at frequencies of 30 Hz and 100 Hz were recorded by videonystagmography test under five recording conditions. The vibratory stimulation was presented to both healthy and affected ears. Collected were analyzed in SPSS v.22 software.
    Results: Vibratory stimulation compared to the unstimulated condition, revealed a significant difference in eye movements for both healthy and affected ears. Moreover, the difference between VIN and SN in the affected ear was much greater than in the healthy ear.
    Conclusion: In patients with chronic unilateral MD, 100 Hz vibratory stimulation of the affected ear induces more reliable nystagmus than 30 Hz stimulation and unstimulated condition. The VIN test can be used for the evaluation of the vestibular system function and is a promising technique to detect the MD ear.

  • XML | PDF | views: 314 | pages: 294-299

    Background and Aim: Auditory-verbal memory (AVM) is the ability to learn, retain, and recall syllables and words. Memory has a strong relationship with the nervous and endocrine systems in humans. Changes in estrogen levels occur naturally at short (menstrual period) and long (pregnancy, menopause, and maturity) periods. Changes in estrogen levels are likely to affect memory function. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hormone fluctuations on the AVM of women.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study with a pretest/posttest design was conducted on 25 women aged 40−49 years with normal hearing and normal menstrual cycles of 28 ± 4 days, who were selected using a convenience sampling method. They were evaluated using two Persian versions of Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This test was performed twice and at two different menstrual periods (2-5 and 14−16 days).
    Results: A significant correlation was observed between the mean of total recall score, recall score after interference, and delayed recall score at two different periods (p < 0.01). The scores of women in three areas on days 14−16 of the menstrual cycle were higher than on days 2−5.
    Conclusion: Women’s RAVLT scores on days 14−16 of the menstrual cycle are higher than on days 2−5, indicating the effect of hormonal fluctuations on their AVM function. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the changes in women’s AVM in different days of the menstrual cycle.

  • XML | PDF | views: 320 | pages: 300-305

    Background and Aim: A rare fungal infection, mucormycosis, has become more common in patients recovering from COVID in its second wave in India. The proximity and easy access to the middle ear through the Eustachian tube from paranasal sinuses alarms the need for early detection of middle ear involvement. Hence, the study was carried out to determine the influence of mucormycosis on Immittance and otoacoustic emissions.
    Methods: eleven rhino orbital mucormycosis patients aged 40-60 years participated in the study. Middle ear evaluation was carried out with the help of Immittance and otoacoustic emissions.
    Results: It was found that 4/11 (36.36%) participants had abnormal Immittance and absent otoacoustic emissions, indicating middle ear dysfunction. 3/4 participants had middle ear dysfunction in the ear ipsilateral to the side of the infection.
    Conclusion: The study results reveal a rare chance of middle ear involvement in mucormycosis patients, which calls for the crucial role of the audiologist in the early detection of middle ear dysfunction.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | views: 559 | pages: 306-308

    Background: In December 2019, the first Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) case was observed in Wuhan, China, and afterward, the world has been exposed to an ongoing pandemic. The Covid-19 has different symptoms, such as fever, coughing, shortness of breath, muscular pain, headache, diarrhea, nose running, and a sore throat. However, the symptoms of Covid-19 are not limited to these ones.
    The Case: The present study reports a 39-year-old female patient complaining of earache and hearing loss with no other Covid-19 symptoms. The medical tests and diagnoses finally inferred that she was suffering from the Covid-19.
    Conclusion: In addition to the common symptoms of Covid 19, acute otitis media can be considered as another symptom of this disease.

  • XML | PDF | views: 212 | pages: 309-313

    Background: Takayasu’s arteritis (TAK) is an idiopathic large-vessel vasculitis. Sensorineural hearing loss is a rare complication in patients with TAK. In this study, we report an adult woman with hearing loss associated with TAK who underwent cochlear implantation (CI).
    The Case: The case was a 28-year-old hearing-impaired woman with TAK who underwent unilateral CI. The surgery improved the patient’s speech perception and perceived sound quality. However, her auditory and speech performances changed over time.
    Conclusion: The present case report highlights the importance of monitoring auditory and spe­ech performance of CI patients with TAK.