Vol 21 No 4 (2012)

Published: 2012-12-19

Review Article(s)

  • XML | views: 934 | pages: 1-9

    Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.
    Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.
    Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS) have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

Research Article(s)

  • XML | views: 128 | pages: 10-18

    Background and Aim: The temporal processing is one of the critical features in central auditory processing system; the gap in noise (GIN) test is the appropriate clinical tool for appraisal of temporal resolution which in people with multiple sclerosis may encounter with complications. Consequently, the aim of this study was to compare the results of gap in noise test in 18 to 40-year-old patients with multiple sclerosis and normal participants.
    Methods: This cross-sectional non-invasive cohort study was conducted on 20 patients with relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis (mean age: 28.9 years) and 26 healthy normal hearing participant (mean age: 27.7 years) in the age range 18 to 40 years. The approximate threshold and percent of corrected responses were obtained and then were analyzed using Student’s t-test.
    Results: There was an increase in gap detection and decrease in percent of corrected responses in gap in noise test within multiple sclerosis patients in comparison with normal people (p<0.0001). Moreover, there were a correlation of 78% between increasing disease duration and approximate threshold and also a correlation of 82% between increasing disease duration and corrected responses (p<0.0001).
    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it seems that people with multiple sclerosis suffer from some degree of disorder in the temporal resolution which might be due to involvement of central nerve system and, somehow, deficit in central auditory processing. Therefore, for evaluating the temporal resolution in people with multiple sclerosis, gap in noise test could be useful.

  • XML | views: 113 | pages: 19-27

    Bachground and Aim: The involvement of central auditory nervous system is relatively prevalent in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). To understand cortex function and to investigate cognitive impairment, event related potential is considered as a valuable tool. This study was aimed to compare the amplitude and latency of the event related potentials of P300 in MS patients and normal individuals.
    Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 21 MS patients and 27 normal cases aged 18-50 years. Auditory P300 was recorded with oddball paradigm, using two tone burst stimuli (1000 and 2000).
    Results: In MS patients, mean latencies were significantly longer (p<0.001) and mean amplitude were significantly lower (p<0.001), in both males and females. Sex did not affect P300 latencies and amplitudes significantly.
    Conclusion: MS patients show some degree of event related potential abnormalities. Combination of auditory P300 and neuropsychological tests may be useful to investigate cognitive impairment in MS patients.

  • XML | views: 136 | pages: 28-36

    Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.
    Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 boys and 47 girls) who had all the specific criteria for normality were randomly selected from several preschools in Shiraz, Iran. During the first stage of testing, test of language development (TOLD) was administered to investigate language development of participants; later, the social skills rating system (SSRS) including the teachers’ and parents’ forms were completed by the parents and teachers of participants. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients.
    Results: The correlations between expressive language and dimensions of social skills were significant (p<0.001), but teachers’ form had a greater correlation with language development (p=0.031). Besides, Pearson’s correlations between teachers’ and parents’ forms was not significant (p=0.27).
    Conclusion: According to our results, expressive language develops along with social skills development. On the other hand, these results are based on the differences between home and educational environment in social skills achievements of children. These findings are to be considered to provide crucial training in both environments for the children to improve the development of their expressive language.

  • XML | views: 118 | pages: 37-43

    Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.
    Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children) were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.
    Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01) or profound hearing loss (p=0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.
    Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.

  • XML | views: 110 | pages: 44-50

    Background and Aim: Reading skills, a complicated process, should be learnt and solely is not depend on sounds conforming with the written symbols on a page. Readers will be able to understand and perceive the deeper meaning of the text based on their experiences and knowledge obtained through reading. This research aimed to compare hearing-impaired students’ reading literacy in exceptional and ordinary schools in Iran.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 28 hearing-impaired students of the 4th year of primary exceptional and ordinary schools of Shahr-e-Ray and Shahryar cities, Iran, using the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2006) booklets. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test.
    Results: The hearing-impaired students in ordinary schools had significantly (p<0.05) higher scores [mean (SD)] in reading literacy [3.67 (1.74)], comprehension of informational contents [4.21 (2.48)], and comprehension of literary contents [3.14(1.23)] than hearing-impaired students in exceptional schools [1.78 (1.06), 1.92 (1.49), and 1.64 (1.62), respectively].
    Conclusion: Hearing-impaired students in ordinary schools meaningfully had higher performance of reading skills in comparison with hearing-impaired students in exceptional schools. It seems that an appropriate cultural bed should be provided in order to conduct these students and accept them in ordinary schools.

  • XML | views: 119 | pages: 60-67

    Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.
    Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student’s t-test (independent and dependent).
    Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all).
    Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  • XML | views: 238 | pages: 51-59

    Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.
    Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method), 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989) and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981) questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.
    Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01). However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.
    Conclusions: It seems that child’s hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  • XML | views: 115 | pages: 68-75

    Background and Aim: Oral habits have hazardous effects on children’s speech which are sometimes irreversible and permanent. This study was planned to assess these oral habits among children in daycare centers of Tehran, Iran.
    Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 400 children were selected through multistage sampling from 16 day-care centers in Tehran, Iran, They were 24 to 72-month old. Bottle feeding, pacifier usage and digit sucking were determined. After interviewing parents, oral examination [using Paediatric oral skills package (POSO)] and doing standard Phonetic test, a questionnaire was completed for each child.
    Results: Sixty eight had one oral habit. The most prevalent habit was digit sucking (52.9%). The prevalence of bottle feeding, both digit sucking with bottle feeding, and pacifier habit were 38.2%, 7.3% and 1.4%, respectively. There were significant relationship between digit sucking and malocclusion (p<0.001, r=0.4) and hard palate malformationand (p<0.001, r=0.39). Besides, a significant relationship between bottle feeding and malocclusion (p<0.001, r=0.25) was conduted. Digit sucking had significant relationship with lisping, too (p<0.001, r=0.37). There was no gender priority in oral habits.
    Conclusion: Oral habits cause permanent structural conversion in speech producing and oral status.

  • XML | views: 239 | pages: 76-83

    Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gapin-noise (GIN) test.
    Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.
    Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09) was significantly (p<0.001) more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92). The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98%) was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16%) (p<0.001).
    Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexicdysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

  • XML | views: 138 | pages: 84-93

    Background and Aim: One of the common problems in many types of aphasia syndromes is word retrieval and/or production difficulty. So, designing a valid test that can examine this problem based on related processes and influencing factors is important. Picture confrontation naming is a typical method for assessing and treatment of word retrieval impairments. The aim of this study was determining the validity and reliability of oral picture-naming test in assessing word retrieval ability of aphasic adults.
    Methods: Content and face validity of the test, that contains the line drawings of 115 Persian nouns, were assessed by speech therapists, graphists and painters. Then, the test was administered on 10 aphasics and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched normal subjects in two steps. Construct validity and internal consistency of test were investigated. External consistency was analyzed by test-retest method.
    Results: The content and face validity of all items were more than 90 and 85 percents, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of patients and normal subjects (p<0.001). The internal consistency of 0.98 was determined for the test. The intra-class correlation coefficient of this test was 0.98.
    Conclusions: The oral picture-naming test had good content, face and construct validity. Also, internal and external consistencies were high. So, this test is a valid instrument for assessing naming ability of aphasic patients by a variety and big set of picture.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | views: 151 | pages: 94-100

    Background: Hyperlexia is a super ability demonstrated by a very specific group of individuals with developmental disorders. This term is used to describe the children with high ability in word recognition, but low reading comprehension skills, despite the problems in language, cognitive and social skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of improving the semantic aspect of language (increase in understanding and expression vocabulary) on reading comprehension in an autistic child with hyperlexia.
    Case: The child studied in this research was an autistic child with hyperlexia. At the beginning of this study he was 3 years and 11 months old. He could read, but his reading comprehension was low. In a period of 12 therapy session, understanding and expression of 160 words was taught to child. During this period, the written form of words was eliminated. After these sessions, the reading comprehension was re-assessed for the words that child could understand and express.
    Conclusion: Improving semantic aspect of language (understanding and expression of vocabulary) increase reading comprehension of written words.