Research Article

Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia


Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gapin-noise (GIN) test.
Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.
Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09) was significantly (p<0.001) more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92). The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98%) was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16%) (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexicdysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

1. Berninger VW, Nielsen KH, Abbott RD, Wijsman E, Raskind W. Writing problems in developmental dyslexia: under-recognized and under-treated. J Sch Psychol. 2008;46(1):1-21.
2. Yalçinkaya F, Muluk NB, Sahin S. Effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who were suspected of auditory processing difficulty. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(8):1137-42.
3. Sharma M, Purdy SC, Newall P, Wheldall K, Beaman R, Dillon H. Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence of auditory processing deficits in children with reading disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117(5):1130-44.
4. Musiek FE, Shinn JB, Jirsa R, Bamiou DE, Baran JA, Zaida E. GIN (Gaps-In-Noise) test performance in subjects with confirmed central auditory nervous system involvement. Ear Hear. 2005;26(6):608-18.
5. Zamyslowska-Szmytke E, Fuente A, Niebudek-Bogusz E, Sliwinska-Kowalska M. Temporal processing disorder associated with styrene exposure. Audiol Neurootol. 2009;14(5):296-302.
6. Rawool VW. Temporal processing in the auditory system. In: Geffner D, Ross-Swain D, editors. Auditory processing disorders: Assessment, management, and treatment. San Diego: Plural Publishing, Inc; 2007. p. 117-37.
7. Perez AP, Pereira LD. The gap in noise test in 11 and 12-year-old children. Pro Fono. 2010;22(1):7-12.
8. Amaral MI, Colella-Santos MF. Temporal resolution: performance of school-aged children in the GIN Gaps-in-noise test. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76(6):745-52.
9. Shinn JB, Chermak GD, Musiek FE. GIN (gaps-in-noise) performance in the pediatric population. J Am Acad Audiol. 2009;20(4):229-38.
10. Iliadou V, Bamiou DE, Kaprinis S, Kandylis D, Kaprinis G. Auditory Processing Disorders in children suspected of Learning Disabilities-a need for screening? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(7):1029-34.
11. King WM, Lombardino LJ, Grandell CC, Leonard CM. Comorbid auditory processing disorder in developmental dyslexia. Ear Hear. 2003;24(5):448-56.
12. Huttunen-Scott T. Auditory duration discrimination in children with reading disorder, attention deficit or both. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä; 2009.
13. Banai K, Kraus N. Neurobiology of (central) auditory processing disorder and language-based learning disability. In: Musiek FE, Chermak GD, editors. Handbook of (central) auditory processing disorders: volume 1: auditory neuroscience and diagnosis. 1st ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing Inc; 2007;89-116.
14. Cohen-Mimran R, Sapir S. Auditory temporal processing deficits in children with reading disabilities. Dyslexia. 2007;13(3):175-92.
IssueVol 21 No 4 (2012) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Auditory temporal processing gap-in-noise test dyslexia dysgraphia learning disability

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Tajik S, Adel Ghahraman M, Tahaie AA, Hajiabolhassan F, Jalilvand Karimi L, Jalaie S. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia. Aud Vestib Res. 2017;21(4):76-83.