Vol 23 No 5 (2014)

Published: 2014-12-30

Review Article(s)

  • XML | views: 134 | pages: 1-13

    Background and Aim: Many studies have demonstrated a close relationship between phonological working memory and language abilities in normal children and children with language developmental disorders, such as those with cochlear implants. A review of these studies would clarify communication and learning in such children and provide more comprehensive information regarding their education and treatment. In this study, the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities in children with cochlear implants was examined.
    Recent Findings: In this study, the authors studied the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities of children with cochlear implants. These studies showed that in addition to demographic variables, phonological working memory is a factor that affects language development in children with cochlear implants. Children with cochlear implants typically have a shorter memory span.
    Conclusion: It is thought that the deficiency in primary auditory sensory input and language stimulation caused by difficulties in the processing and rehearsal of auditory information in phonological working memory is the main cause of the short memory span in such children. Conversely, phonological working memory problems may have adverse effects on the language abilities in such children. Therefore, to provide comprehensive and appropriate treatment for children with cochlear implants, the reciprocal relationship between language abilities and phonological working memory should be considered.

  • XML | views: 230 | pages: 14-26

    Background and Aim: Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorders, such as behavioral problems, than those who can hear. The aim of this review was to provide a summary of the literature on behavioral problems, with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf populations; describe the risk factor for behavioral problems in deaf populations; and describe approaches to intervention and behavioral problems prevention that have been used in deaf populations.
    Recent Findings: A review of articles published between 1991 and 2013 showed that the prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf people is higher than that of hearing people. Risk factors for behavioral problems in deaf populations include language impairments, communication problems, the role of parents, and the community’s beliefs and attitudes regarding the issue.
    Conclusion: Given the high prevalence of behavioral problems in deaf people, the effectiveness of prevention strategies should be examined. Consequently, it would be advantageous to increase the availability of specialist mental health services, promote deaf awareness including their abilities, promote awareness and skills development among teachers, staff, and specialists and implement behavior change programs.

Research Article(s)

  • XML | views: 300 | pages: 27-34

    Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.
    Methods: Forty young adults (male and female) with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.
    Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003) and the null music condition (p=0.01). The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.
    Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music) and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  • XML | views: 380 | pages: 35-43

    Background and Aim: Some children with speech sound disorder (SSD) have difficulty with phonological awareness skills; therefore, the purpose of this study was to survey the correlation between phonological processes and phonological awareness.
    Methods: Twenty-one children with speech sound disorder, aged between 5 and 6, participated in this crosssectional study. They were recruited from speech therapy clinics at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. They were selected using the convenience sampling method. Language, speech sound, and phonological awareness skills were investigated by the test of language development-third edition (TOLD-3), the Persian diagnostic evaluation articulation and phonology test, and the phonological awareness test. Both Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations were used to analyze the data.
    Results: There was a significant correlation between the atypical phonological processes and alliteration awareness (p=0.005), rhyme awareness (p=0.009), blending phonemes (p=0.006), identification of words with the same initial phoneme (p=0.007), and identification of words with the same final phoneme (p=0.007). Analyzing the correlation on the basis of the phoneme and syllable structure separately showed there was a significant correlation between the atypical phoneme structure and alliteration awareness (p=0.001), rhyme awareness (p=0.008), blending phonemes (p=0.029), identification of words with the same initial phoneme (p=0.007), and identification of words with the same final phoneme (p=0.003).
    Conclusion: Results revealed a relationship between phonological processes and phonological awareness in children with speech sound disorder. Poor phonological awareness was associated with atypical phonological processes especially at the phoneme level.

  • XML | views: 232 | pages: 44-51

    Background and Aim: Empathy is a basic human skill that is important in daily life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the theory of mind in predicting empathy.
    Methods: This study adopted a causal-comparative design. 40 students with profound hearing impairment and 40 students with normal hearing, aged between 8 and 14, participated in the study. Instruments including false belief tasks and empathy questionnaires were distributed to the participants. For multivariate analysis of variance, a correlation analysis and multiple regression methods were used.
    Results: Results indicated a significant difference between the total score of false belief tasks and empathy in students with hearing impairment and those with normal hearing (p<0.001). A significant relationship between the theory of mind and empathy was found in both groups (p<0.01). Also theory of mind could predict the empathy (p=0.001).
    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in the theory of mind and empathy was seen in students with hearing impairment. Therefore, training programs that focus on social skills are required for students with hearing impairment in order to address this problem. Moreover, training materials need to be tailored to their cognitive understanding.

  • XML | views: 146 | pages: 52-59

    Background and Aim: Grammatical skills development of hearing-impaired children depends on using appropriate educational rehabilitation programs. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids.
    Methods: Ten hearing-impaired children with hearing aids, aged between 5 and 7, were randomly assigned to two groups (5 children in each group). Each treatment group received 12 sessions on linguistic plays. The grammatical skills of these children were evaluated via the TOLD-P: 3 (Persian version); in addition, their level of intelligence was assessed by the Raven test.
    Results: The difference between the scores of both control and treatment groups revealed a statistically significant difference in grammatical skills (t=7.61, p=0.001) and three subskills of the children who participated in the linguistic plays. These subskills include syntactic understanding (t=3.16, p=0.013), sentence imitation (t=1.71, p=0.006), and morphological completion (t=6.55, p=0.001). In other words, the findings suggest that linguistic plays have a significant impact on the improvement of the aforementioned skills in hearing-impaired children.
    Conclusion: Results suggest that it would be beneficial to include linguistic plays as part of routine rehabilitation programs as a means of improving the grammatical difficulties of children. After partaking in linguistic plays, children significantly improved their ability to comprehend the meaning of sentences and also to recognize, understand, and use common Persian morphological forms.

  • XML | views: 113 | pages: 60-67

    Background and Aim: Hearing impairment is one of the most stressful disabilities. The mental health of parents caring for children with hearing impairment is at risk. Therefore, technical support and intervention are very valuable for these families. These services are also useful for children’s development. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of social work services on the social adjustment of parents of children with hearing impairment.
    Methods: In this study, 37 parents of children with hearing impairment were selected as the sample population. Interviews and case studies were conducted to determine whether the parents were receiving social work services. The social adjustment scale was used to assess parents’ social adjustment. Analysis of variance (F) was used to analyze the data and information obtained from parents.
    Results: Data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between parents who had received social work services and parents who had not received social work services (p<0.001).
    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, parents who had received social work services experienced higher social adjustment. It can be said that providing assistance to parents of children with hearing impairment can improve their social integration.

  • XML | views: 155 | pages: 68-77

    Background and Aim: Although double dichotic digit test is a useful tool for assessing the central auditory system in adults, it is more useful for evaluating younger children. The present study aimed to develop the Persian version of the single dichotic digit test and to obtain initial normative data.
    Methods: The Persian version of the present test consisted of three different sets of 25 single digit pairs for testing in the free recall, directed recall to right, and directed recall to left conditions. The digits in each list were recorded dichotically on a compact disc. The sectional study was performed on 126 male students, aged between 7 and 9. The test-retest reliability was assessed in 29 subjects two to four weeks after the first test session.
    Results: In seven year olds, the mean right and left ear scores increased from around 95.79% and
    89.69%, respectively. In eight year olds, the mean right and left ear scores increased from around 98.59% and 96.29%, respectively. The mean right ear advantage decreased from around 6.13% in 7 year olds to around 2% in 8 year olds (p=0.001). No significant difference was found in scores between the free recall and directed recall conditions (p>0.05). The test had a high test-retest reliability (p>0.05).
    Conclusion: The Persian version of the test has a high test-retest reliability for evaluating male children aged between 7 and 9; it can be used for assessing binaural integration in male children of this age group.

  • XML | views: 462 | pages: 78-85

    Background and Aim: Phonological awareness (consisting of phoneme, syllable and intra-syllable awareness) is an important part of receptive and expressive language; it facilitates reading and writing skills through phonological re-coding. Multiple studies in several languages have studied the relationship between phonological awareness and dictation. This research is based on a study of the relationship between phonological skill and spelling score in first-grade Persian students.
    Methods: Four hundred first-grade students participated in the study, including 209 girls and 191 boys. A phonological awareness test was individually administered for each student and then a spelling exam was administered in groups. The correlation between the two tests was studied using a simple regression model. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys was evaluated employing an independent t-test.
    Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.82 was obtained between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency (p<0.001). Phonological skill sub-tests also showed a significant correlation with spelling proficiency (highest for phoneme awareness r=0.34 and lowest for rhyme awareness r=0.12). The mean scores of girls and boys differed significantly (p<0.05).
    Conclusion: There is a strong positive association between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency. Therefore, if phonological skill is improved, spelling score can be enhanced.

  • XML | views: 128 | pages: 86-93

    Background and Aim: Students with hearing impairment show delayed development of theory of mind (ToM) compared with normal children. One factor impacting development of theory of mind is parent-child interaction. The present study investigated the relationship between maternal emotional intelligence and theory of mind in students with hearing impairment.
    Methods: The present study employed correlational research. 40 students with profound hearing impairment (age range: 8-14 years) and their mothers were selected to participate. Measurement instruments included the false belief task and emotional intelligence questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by mothers. Correlational analysis and multiple regression methods were used for data analysis.
    Results: Results indicated no significant correlation between the total score on false belief task and the emotional intelligence score and its components (p>0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that maternal emotional intelligence and its components cannot predict student's scores in false belief tasks (p>0.01).
    Conclusion: The results show that there is no significant correlation between maternal emotional intelligence and theory of mind in students with hearing impairment. Therefore, maternal emotional intelligence cannot predict the development of theory of mind in students with hearing impairment.