Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance
Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.
Methods: Forty young adults (male and female) with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.
Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003) and the null music condition (p=0.01). The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.
Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music) and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.
2. van der Molen MJ. Working memory structure in 10- and 15-year old children with mild to borderline intellectual, disabilities. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31(6):1258-63.
3. Ferreira Correia A, Campagna Osorio I. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: normative data developed for the Venezuelan population. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;29(2):206-15.
4. Aghamollaei M, Jafari Z, Toufan R, Esmaili M, Rahimzadeh S. Evaluation of auditory verbal memory and learning performance of 18-30 year old Persian-speaking healthy women. Audiol. 2012;21(3):32-9. Persian.
5. Jafari Z, Steffen Moritz P, Zandi T, Kamrani A, Malyeri S. Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) among the elderly. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. 2010;16(1):56-64. Persian.
6. Bock O. Sensorimotor adaptation is influenced by background music. Exp Brain Res. 2010;203(4):737-41.
7. Mammarella N, Fairfield B, Cornoldi C. Does music enhance cognitive performance in healthy older adults? The Vivaldi effect. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007;19(5):394-9.
8. Dobbs S, Furnham A, McClelland A. The effect of background music and noise on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Appl Cogn Psychol. 2011;25(2):307-13.
9. Schellenberg EG, Weiss MW. Music and cognitive abilities. In: Deutsch D, editor. The psychology of Music. 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press; 2012.p. 499-550.
10. Peters JS. Music therapy: an Introduction. 2nd ed. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd; 2001.
11. Iwanaga M, Ito T. Disturbance effect of music on processing of verbal and spatial memories. Percept Mot Skills. 2002;94(3 Pt 2):1251-8.
12. Särkämö T, Soto D. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2012;1252:266-81.
13. Geer JH, McGlone MS. Sex differences in memory for erotica. Cogn Emot. 1990;4(1):71-8.
14. Hallam S, Price J, Katsarou G. The effects of background music on primary school pupils' task performance. Educ Stud. 2002;28(2):111-22.
Copyright (c) 2017 Auditory and Vestibular Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.