Vol 29 No 2 (2020)

Published: 2020-04-30

Research Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | views: 143 | pages: 64-75

    Background and Aim: Teachers’ evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (TEACH) scale is one of the scales used for assessing hearing-impaired children’s behaviors in real-life environments, regardless of the degree of hearing loss. The aim of the present study was development, determining validity and reliabi­lity of the Persian TEACH (P-TEACH) in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children.
    Methods: The TEACH scale was translated and cross-culturally adapted. After verifying the face validity of the scale, P-TEACH was performed on 40 normal-hearing and 42 hearing-impaired and its’ results were compared with the Persian parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (P-PEACH). The test-retest reliability of P-TEACH was evaluated after two weeks on 10 subjects who were selected randomly.
    Results: Content validity index for item 3 was 0.8 and for others were 1. P-TEACH scores showed a significant difference between two groups (p < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between P-TEACH and P-PEACH scores (r = 0.59 to 0.87; p < 0.05). Cronbach's α for P-TEACH was 0.75 -0.98 for both groups. There was a significant correlation between children’s age and total score of P-TEACH in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children (r = 0.40 and 0.41 respectively; p ≤ 0.001). There was a significant correlation between test and retest of P-TEACH (r = 0.87 to 0.97; < 0.001).
    Conclusion: P-TEACH is a well-adapted valid and reliable tool for functional evaluation of the auditory performance of hearing-impaired children. The study showed that the P-TEACH has a strong agreement with the P-PEACH.

  • XML | PDF | views: 124 | pages: 76-84

    Background and Aim: The methods of determining the amount of sound attenuation by ear mold, earplug or any other foreign body that placed in or out of the ear canal, is divided in subjective and objective. Due to the contradictory results in the studies in this field, this study aimed to use more audiometric frequencies considering the strengths and weaknesses of previous studies.
    Methods: This study was conducted on 30 individuals with normal hearing in the age range of 21-26-year-old. First the impression mold was prepared from both ears. The evaluating real ear unaided response and the real ear occluded response. In the next step, hearing thresholds were assessed by sound field with a precision of 1 dB, once in both open ear and once in both closed ears. Finally, the insertion loss due to mold placement at each frequency was compared with the amount of behavioral threshold changes at the same frequency.
    Results: By using paired t-test at frequencies of 400, 500, 800, 1000, 1500, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 6300 and 8000 Hz, the difference in behavioral hearing thresholds with and without molding was greater than the amount of the insertion loss (p < 0.001).
    Conclusion: The insertion loss due to impression for behavioral assessment at all of the tested frequencies were more than the attenuation in real ear evaluation (p < 0.001). In this regard, consequently the standard deviation of insertion loss due to impression in behavioral threshold condition was more than real ear measurement.

  • XML | PDF | views: 142 | pages: 85-92

    Background and Aim: Anxiety and depression are prevalent psychological disorders accompany tinnitus that have adverse effects on quality of life of these patients and on the outcomes of rehabilitation programs. The goal of this study was determining and quantifying the relation among perceived tinnitus severity, its psychoacoustic parameters and anxiety symptoms in hearing-impaired individuals with subjective chronic tinnitus and residual inhibition (RI) by using Persian version of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), tinnitus handicap inventory-Persian version (THI-P) and visual analogue scale (VAS) besides psychometric evaluations.
    Methods: Fourteen patients with chronic tinnitus were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Conventional psychoacoustic tinnitus evaluations (i.e. determining quality of tinnitus, pitch matching, loudness matching, minimum masking level and RI) were conducted for all subjects, and they also completed the Persian version of STAI and THI-P. For screening of tinnitus perceived loudness and distress, VAS was used.
    Results: There was no correlation among THI-P, VAS scores and psychoacoustic parameters. There was a positive significant correlation between THI-P and Persian STAI scores (r = 0.63; p = 0.01). There was not any significant correlation between tinnitus duration and VAS, STAI or THI-P. There also had no significant correlation between VAS and THI-P (r = 0.56; p = 0.2).
    Conclusion: The present pilot study showed that Persian version of THI and STAI are correlated questionnaires. Therefore, Persian version of these questionnaires are valuable tools for evaluation of patients with chronic tinnitus.

  • XML | PDF | views: 169 | pages: 93-100

    Background and Aim: Electrocochleography is one of the most practically used tests in approaching Meniere's disease (MD). To record reliable response components, the type of applied electrode is of particular importance. The TIP-trode is an appropriate electrode due to its user-friendliness. Gutter electrode can be used in more than 100 subject. This study aimed to compare the results of the Electrocochleography (ECochG) test responses using TIP-trode and the Gutter electrode.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 20 normal subjects and 20 patients with MD, who referred to the Audiology Clinic of Iran University of Medical Sciences. The ECochG response components were randomly recorded with TIP-trode and Gutter-electrode consecutively, and then statistical analysis was accomplished.
    Results: The mean impedance, action potential, and summation potential amplitudes were not significantly different between normal subjects and people with MD by using two types of electrodes. Moreover, the mean scores of summation potential/action potential (SP/AP) ratio of the Gutter electrode were higher than that of the TIP-trod. The mean SP/AP ratio between two types of electrodes was statistically significant differences in normal subjects (p = 0.027) and in MD group (p = 0.009).
    Conclusion: We demonstrated that the utilization of the Gutter electrode in ECochG assessments was considerably effective and beneficial. It can significantly reduce expenses and be applied in clinical settings. It’s also recommended that 47.22% mean SP/AP amplitude ratio to be considered as upper limit of normality by using the Gutter electrode.

  • XML | PDF | views: 137 | pages: 101-108

    Background and Aim: Hearing loss can have disabling effects on all aspects of children’s life and demographic factors of families can have significant effects on children’s auditory development. The main aim of the study was determining the effects of socioeconomic and education level on auditory behaviors of hearing-impaired children.
    Methods: The study was cross sectional descriptive-analytic study and was conducted on 207 parents of children under age of four years with native Persian speaking parents with literacy skill. Their hearing impairment was identified before the first month of age. Early occurrence of hearing loss was considered to exclude any effects of early exposure to normal auditory stimuli on the outcome measurements. The children had at least 3-month experience with the cochlear implant (CI) after best fitting and adaptation to their device at the time of the study. Samples were selected by convenience sampling method from available subjects. For determining socioeconomic level, Ghodratnama socioeconomic status (SES) questionnaire was used. Infants and Toddlers Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) was selected for the auditory behaviors study.
    Results: Socioeconomic and educational level of the family showed no significant effects on auditory behaviors. The age of receiving auditory assistive device had weak but statistically significant effect on the outcome.
    Conclusion: It seems that socioeconomic status and educational level of the family did not contribute to the auditory behaviors of children with cochlear implant. The generalizations of these results need further studies.

  • XML | PDF | views: 135 | pages: 109-116

    Background and Aim: Balance disorders are among common complications of chronic low back pain (LBP). Since the tissue and echogenicity of thoracolumbar fascia changes in chronic LBP, the independent motion of fascia layers would negatively alter, and it may affect the control of spine movements. It has been shown that myofascial release (MFR) improves the function of transversus abdominis as a core muscle in LBP. So, MFR may affect the balance and postural control in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects of MFR and core stability (CS) exercises on dynamic balance and pain in women with chronic non-specific LBP.
    Methods: In this pilot study, with a pretest-posttest design, 10 females aged 30 ± 9.04 participated. The participants received one session of MFR on thoracolumbar fascia and CS exercises. The outcome measures were dynamic balance by Y balance test (YBT) and pain with visual analogue scale (VAS), which were assessed before and immediately after the intervention.
    Results: Dynamic balance improved significantly (p < 0.02) after intervention. The VAS as an indicator of pain intensity showed significant improvement (p = 0.005).
    Conclusion: The application of MFR plus CS exercises for a single session is effective in improving dynamic balance and pain in women with chronic non-specific LBP.

  • XML | PDF | views: 150 | pages: 117-121

    Background and Aim: The general health of the mothers of children using hearing aids is highly important, and can affect their children’s progress in hearing rehabilitation programs. This study aimed to compare the general health of the mothers of children using cochlear implants (CIs), mothers of children using hearing aids (HAs), and mothers with normal hearing (NH) children.
    Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study conducted on the mothers of children using CIs (n = 19), HAs (n = 19), and NH (n = 15). Their general health was measured by the 28-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) in four areas of physical symptoms, anxiety symptom, social dysfunction symptom, and depression symptom.
    Results: The general health of the mothers of children using CIs was significantly higher than that of the mothers with children using HAs (p = 0.02), while it was lower than that of the mothers with NH children, but it was not statistically significant (p = 0.5).
    Conclusion: Mothers of children using CI children have higher general health than the mothers with children using HA, and its level was close to that of the mothers with NH children. Cochlear implantation and consequently improved communication is effective in improving the general health of the hearing-impaired children’s mothers.

  • XML | PDF | views: 292 | pages: 122-127

    Background and Aim: Tinnitus functional index (TFI) has been introduced as a standard self-assessment questionnaire for the evaluation of tinnitus severity and its negative consequences with enough sensitivity to detect the outcomes of treatment. The purpose of this study was to translate the original tinnitus functional index into Persian and to evaluate its reliability in a military population.
    Methods: The translation was performed in accordance with the Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-Reported Outcomes Measures. 32 military and veteran men with tinnitus aged 22−74 years participated in the current study. The participants completed the Persian version of the TFI and the second re-evaluation session was conducted over the telephone 10−14 days later. Both relative and absolute reliability indices were computed.
    Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient(2,1) with consistency definition for the TFI subscales varied from good to excellent. The agreement between the TFI total scores in the evaluation and re-evaluation using Bland-Altman analysis was acceptable and only one case was not located within the limits of agreement.
    Conclusion: Initial evaluation of the Persian version of TFI shows acceptable results in terms of reliability. The evaluation of the Persian TFI in different populations of patients with tinnitus and its validity would facilitate its clinical application.