Research Article

A comparative study on the general health of the mothers of children with cochlear implant, hearing aid, and normal hearing


Background and Aim: The general health of the mothers of children using hearing aids is highly important, and can affect their children’s progress in hearing rehabilitation programs. This study aimed to compare the general health of the mothers of children using cochlear implants (CIs), mothers of children using hearing aids (HAs), and mothers with normal hearing (NH) children.
Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study conducted on the mothers of children using CIs (n = 19), HAs (n = 19), and NH (n = 15). Their general health was measured by the 28-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) in four areas of physical symptoms, anxiety symptom, social dysfunction symptom, and depression symptom.
Results: The general health of the mothers of children using CIs was significantly higher than that of the mothers with children using HAs (p = 0.02), while it was lower than that of the mothers with NH children, but it was not statistically significant (p = 0.5).
Conclusion: Mothers of children using CI children have higher general health than the mothers with children using HA, and its level was close to that of the mothers with NH children. Cochlear implantation and consequently improved communication is effective in improving the general health of the hearing-impaired children’s mothers.

1. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016;388(10053):1545-602. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6
2. Stevens G, Flaxman S, Brunskill E, Mascarenhas M, Mathers CD, Finucane M. Global and regional hearing impairment prevalence: an analysis of 42 studies in 29 countries. Eur J Public Health. 2013;23(1):146-52. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckr176
3. Mulwafu W, Kuper H, Ensink RJ. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2016;21(2):158-65. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12640
4. Lotfi Y, Ja'fari Z. The prevalence of hearing disorders among the 3-6 years old children of kindergartens in welfare organization of Tehran province. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2001;2(1-2):7-13.
5. Haghshenas M, Zadeh P, Javadian Y, Fard H, Delavari K, Panjaki H, et al. Auditory screening in infants for early detection of permanent hearing loss in northern Iran. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014;4(3):340-4. doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.133456
6. Firoozbakht M, Mahmoudian S, Alaeddini F, Esmaeilzadeh M, Rafiei M, Firouzbakht A, et al. Community-based newborn hearing screening programme for early detection of permanent hearing loss in Iran: an eight-year cross-sectional study from 2005 to 2012. J Med Screen. 2014;21(1):10-7. doi: 10.1177/0969141314522992
7. Yoshinaga-Itano C, Baca RL, Sedey AL. Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe to profound hearing loss: a closer look at children with CIs versus HAs. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31(8):1268-74. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181f1ce07
8. Francart T, McDermott HJ. Psychophysics, fitting, and signal processing for combined HA and CI stimulation. Ear Hear. 2013;34(6):685-700. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e31829d14cb
9. Hintermair M. Parental resources, parental stress, and socioemotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2006;11(4):493-513. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enl005
10. Dammeyer J. Psychosocial development in a Danish population of children with CIs and deaf and hard-of-hearing children. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2010;15(1):50-8. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enp024
11. Wallis D, Musselman C, MacKay S. Hearing mothers and their deaf children: the relationship between early, ongoing mode match and subsequent mental health functioning in adolescence. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2004;9(1):2-14. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enh014
12. Burger T, Spahn C, Richter B, Eissele S, Löhle E, Bengel J. Parental distress: the initial phase of HA and CI fitting. Am Ann Deaf. 2005;150(1):5-10. doi: 10.1353/aad.2005.0017
13. Aliakbari Dehkordi M, Kakojoibari AA, Mohtashami T, Yektakhah S. Stress in mothers of hearing-impaired children compared to mothers of normal and other disabled children. Audiol;2011;20(1):128-36.
14. Narimani M, Agha Mohammadian HR, Rajabi S. A comparison between the mental health of mothers of exceptional children and mothers of normal children. Q J Fundam Mental Health. 2007;9(33-34):15-24.
15. Sarant J, Garrard P. Parenting stress in parents of children with CIs: relationships among parent stress, child language, and unilateral versus bilateral implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2014;19(1):85-106. doi: 10.1093/deafed/ent032
16. Quittner AL, Steck JT, Rouiller RL. Cochlear implants in children: a study of parental stress and adjustment. Am J Otol. 1991;12 Suppl:95-104.
17. Movallali G, Abdollahzadeh Rafi M, Nemati S. Comparison of general health status in mothers of hearing and hearing-impaired children. Audiol; 2013;22(2):33-9.
18. Cohen SM, Labadie RF, Dietrich MS, Haynes DS. Quality of life in hearing-impaired adults: the role of CIs and HAs. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;131(4):413-22. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2004.03.026
19. Malakouti SK, Fatollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Zandi T. Reliability, validity and factor structure of the GHQ-28 used among elderly Iranians. Int Psychogeriatr. 2007;19(4):623-34. doi: 10.1017/S1041610206004522
20. Pipp-Siegel S, Sedey AL, Yoshinaga-Itano C. Predictors of parental stress in mothers of young children with hearing loss. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2002;7(1):1-17. doi: 10.1093/deafed/7.1.1
21. Chu J, Richdale AL. Sleep quality and psychological wellbeing in mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil. 2009;30(6):1512-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2009.07.007
22. Marschark M, Sarchet T, Sapere P, Convertino C. Cochlear implants and classroom learning among deaf college students. Biomed J Sci Tech Res. 2019;18(5):13912-6. doi: 10.26717/BJSTR.2019.18.003215
IssueVol 29 No 2 (2020) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Hearing aid; cochlear implant; general health questionnaire; mothers

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Gohari N, Sajadi E, Azvantash Z, Khavarghazalani B. A comparative study on the general health of the mothers of children with cochlear implant, hearing aid, and normal hearing. Aud Vestib Res. 2020;29(2):117-121.