Vol 27 No 3 (2018)

Published: 2018-06-09

Research Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | views: 263 | pages: 116-125

    Background and Aim: One of the most prevalent problems in auditory processing disorder (APD) is in decoding. This problem is at the phonemic level and can difficulties in spelling, reading, speech processing disorder, responding delay, phonemic identification, memory, and manipulation. One of the training approaches for decoding problems is the phonemic training program. Considering high prevalence of decoding problems and lack of evaluation of the Persian version of the phonemic training program, this study investigated its efficacy in a child with APD.
    Methods: This is a single-subject interventional study. A child with APD was selected and evaluated with Persian version of Phonemic Synthesis Test and staggered spondee words test at baseline, training, and monitoring phase. Data were analyzed by single-subject study statistics.
    Results: All results showed absolute efficacy of the training.
    Conclusion: The phonemic training program was effective in a child with auditory processing disorder.

  • XML | PDF | views: 137 | pages: 126-130

    Background and Aim: Sometimes people with functional hearing loss are referred to audiology clinics. The delayed auditory feedback (DAF) is a test which assesses functional hearing loss qualitatively. This study aimed to quantify DAF and accordingly use it in more precise way.
    Methods: Fifteen normally hearing students participated in this experiment. Each person’s voice was presented to his or her ear once without and another time with fixed time delay when he or she was reading simple texts. The delayed voices were presented in different intensity levels. Stuttering, unusual lengthy, and non-fluent utterances indicated the perception and hearing of the delayed voices.
    Results: The length of the utterances increased and the fluency of the utterances decreased significantly for delayed compared to non-delay condition and for different intensity levels.
    Conclusion: These results showed that the levels of intensity of the delayed voices might influence the perception of the delay.

  • XML | PDF | views: 220 | pages: 131-136

    Background and Aim: Understanding abstract concepts, especially metaphors in daily life and education is a complex conceptual phenomenon. Early hearing damages can affect an individual’s understanding of metaphors and their functions in different ways. This study aimed to compare the understanding levels of metaphorical expressions between children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal children.
    Methods: In this study, 35 children with CIs were compared with 35 normal children in terms of understanding metaphorical expressions. Two groups were matched in terms of gender and age. The children with hearing problems received their implants when they were two to five years old. Both groups of children were evaluated using a researcher-made test. Finally, the data collected through the participants’ responses to the test items were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the independent samples t test.
    Results: There was a significant difference in understanding metaphorical and simile expressions between children with CIs and the normal children (p<0.05) in favor of the normal children. The mean±SD scores for the metaphorical and simile expressions in normal children were 9.57±1.78 and 8.11±2.39 while in children with CIs, they were 5.34±2.35 and 6.17±3.24, respectively.
    Conclusion: Although the cochlear implantation improves the auditory perception of deaf children, the perception of children with CIs was found to be weaker than normal children. Apparently, these children have spent several years of their lives without hearing, and this deprivation is likely to affect their understanding.

  • XML | PDF | views: 183 | pages: 137-142

    Background and Aim: Theory of Mind (TOM) refers to the ability for attributing mental states and beliefs to ourselves and others, and understanding that the others’ mental states can be different from ours. However, this ability seems to be delayed in children with the history of hearing impairment. Based on the evidence, there is a mutual association between language development and social experiences. The present study aimed to assess TOM and the effect of speech therapy in 8- to 9-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs).
    Methods: The present study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design. A total of 18 Persian-speaking children with CIs and 18 normal children aged 8-9 years participated in the current study. Children with CIs were selected through convenience method from Amir Alam Hospital and normal peers from their play-ground. The participants had no history of sensory, anatomical, neuronal, and speech disorders. The basic and advanced TOM was assessed with Ghamarani TOM test and a comparison was done between normal children and children with CIs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 21.
    Results: The performance of the two groups with regard to the basic and advanced TOM was significantly different (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the duration of speech therapy and TOM abilities (r=0.46, p=0.041).
    Conclusion: Hearing impairment affects the ability of TOM in children with CIs. The duration of speech therapy has a positive effect on the development of TOM.

  • XML | PDF | views: 171 | pages: 143-149

    Background and Aim: Decoding deficit is the most common central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Given the benefits of computer-based auditory training programs for treatment of central disorders and the lack of such programs in Persian language, this study aimed to develop a computer-based auditory training program for decoding skill. We also evaluated this program in 8 to12 year old children with CAPD.
    Methods: The first stage of research was to develop a computer-based auditory training program. This program consists of three levels of phonological discrimination, syllable discrimination, and word discrimination. The second stage was to determine the content and face validity of the program. The third stage was to assess the program effect on five children with decoding deficit. The research method was interventional and had a pretest and post-test design with another five children as control group. The staggered spondaic word, phonemic synthesis (PS) and speech in noise tests was used to assess the children performance before and after training.
    Results: Mean scores of staggered spondaic word (SSW) and PS tests of the experimental group were significantly difference before and after the auditory training (p<0.05) as compared to control group. However, there was no significant difference with regard to the speech-in-noise test results (p>0.05).
    Conclusion: This computer-based auditory training program can be considered as a preliminary tool for the rehabilitation and treatment of decoding deficits in children with CAPD.

  • XML | PDF | views: 280 | pages: 150-156

    Background and Aim: Caffeine consumes targeted attention to the signal, which is expected to lead to increased noise tolerance and ultimately improved speech perception. In the current study, the effect of short-term caffeine consumption on speech and noise simultaneous reception function was evaluated using acceptable noise level (ANL) test.
    Methods: In this interventional double-blind study, 90 cases (45 male, 45 female) aged 18−34 years were randomly assigned into three groups: the test groups, 3 and 5 mg/kg caffeine, and the control group, just placebo. The ANL test was recorded before and one hour after intervention. The results were compared before and after taking caffeine in three groups.
    Results: The statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference in ANL result in dose 3 mg/kg caffeine before and one hour after intervention (p=0.043) and there was a significant difference in ANL result in dose 5 mg/kg caffeine before and one hour after intervention (p=0.001). Also, there was a significant difference in ANL before and one hour after taking caffeine between the group receiving 3 mg/kg dose of caffeine and the 5 mg/kg dose of caffeine (p=0.015).
    Conclusion: According to the findings of the study, after an hour of caffeine consumption, the ANL decreases. In other words, the individuals tolerate higher levels of speech noise. This is also dependent on the dose of caffeine.

  • XML | PDF | views: 303 | pages: 157-163

    Background and Aim: Frequency discrimination is an important skill in central auditory processing which plays a critical role in proper reading, writing, and speech perception. Music training is among the ways that improve this skill. Most of the reviewed literature is based on the impact of learning music on the early stages of childhood. Therefore, if the tests used in the assessment of central auditory system are proved to be effective in music training in adulthood, they could be recommended as an appropriate option for adult central auditory processing disorder rehabilitation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of learning to play stringed instruments in adulthood on frequency discrimination by pitch pattern sequence test.
    Methods: This cross-sectional and non-interventional study was performed on 46 normal hearing subjects aged 20-45 years, 28 non-musicians and 18 musicians who were trained to play music as an adult. They were compared by PPST. The results were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance.
    Results: There was a significant difference between the average scores of the two groups, the non-musicians and the musicians, for both ears (p<0.001). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the two test results in both groups gender wise (p>0.05).
    Conclusion: More correct answers of musicians indicated their better frequency discrimination compared to non-musicians, which could be a reason for improvement in the performance of the central auditory system caused by music training even in the verge of adulthood.

  • XML | PDF | views: 260 | pages: 164-170

    Background and Aim: Studies have shown that central auditory processing disorder is a sensory processing deficit which has five percent prevalence among school-aged children that results in speech, language and learning problems in children. The aim of the current study was investigating the referral rate of children suspected to central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) by using auditory processing domain questionnaire (APDQ), speech in noise test, and dichotic digit test.
    Methods: Three hundred and ninety six APDQ questionnaire was obtained from children’s parents among five schools in Oshnaviyeh. The children with low APDQ score underwent speech in noise and dichotic digit test (DDT).
    Results: The findings revealed that 37 children were suspected to CAPD based on APDQ. 35 of these participants in DDT and 24 of them in speech in noise test also indicated low scores, respectively. Moreover, results were unrelated to gender, however, age had a positive correlation with the questionnaire scores.
    Conclusion: Based on the findings, the APDQ can be used as a screening questionnaire for detecting CAPD.