Articles in Press

Research Article(s)

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    Background and Aim: Buffalo model consists of four Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) categories: decoding, tolerance-fading memory, organization, and integration. Integration is considered as the most complex category. The Dichotic Offset Measure (DOM) provides valuable information about the organization and integration problems. The present study aimed to develop the Persian version of the DOM (P-DOM)  and evaluate its psychometric properties in normal-hearing children.
    Methods: In this study, 25 normal-hearing children (13 girls) aged 7–12 years participated and were divided into six age groups. The face validity was determined based on the opinions of 15 experts, five children with CAPD, and five normal-hearing children. All children were tested with the Persian staggered spondaic word test, Persian phonemic synthesis test, and the Persian randomized dichotic digit test.
    Results: The results showed the high face validity of the P-DOM. No significant differences were observed between the scores of girls and boys (p=0.394 for the right non-competing, p=0.623 for the right competing, p=0.155 for the left competing, p=0.066 for the left non-competing, p=0.174 for the total score, and p=0.701 for the reversals). Significant differences were observed in the main scores of P-DOM test among the age groups. The Spearman test showed a high test-retest reliability (r>0.69).
    Conclusion: As a preliminary study it seems that the P-DOM has good validity and reliability to be used in normal-hearing children, but it needs further research with larger sample size.

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    Background and Aim: Psychoacoustics includes studying the perceived effects of changes in sound intensity, temporal, and frequency aspects that are critical for speech perception. Psycon is one such software used in studies to assess psychoacoustic abilities. Psycon has the potential for wide clinical applications in psychoacoustic research and relies on Auditory syntaX (AUX), a program designed specifically to handle auditory signals. The current study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability of the Psycon application for differential sensitivity measures of frequency, intensity, duration and silence.
    Methods: The study included 39 participants with normal hearing sensitivity. Psychoacoustic measures, namely, gap detection threshold, duration discrimination threshold, difference limen of intensity, and difference limen of frequency, were used to assess test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability of all measures was checked in two separate sessions within one day.
    The reliability of each measure was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability of various psychoacoustic tests measured with Psycon ranges from good to excellent. difference limen of frequency had the highest reliability, followed by duration discrimination thresholds, difference limen of intensity, and gap detection thresholds.
    Conclusion: Psycon appears to be a reliable tool for assessing different psychoacoustic abilities.

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    Background and Aim: People with spatial hearing impairment have difficulty perception of speech in the presence of noise, sound localization, and estimating the distance from the sound source. In this study, the comparison between amplitude and latency of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR-BIC) with the total score of the Persian version of the Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ) in adults with normal hearing and moderate sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was evaluated.
    Methods: In this cross-sectional comparative study 55, 18–45-year-old individuals including 35 of normal hearing and 20 moderate SNHL participated. All participants underwent the assessments of medical history, otoscopy, conventional audiometry, tympanometry, SHQ questionnaire, and auditory brainstem response (ABR).
    Results: There was no significant correlation between the amplitude and latency of the ABR-BIC and the Persian version of the SHQ in normal groups (r=–0.085, r=0.116) and in moderate SNHL groups (r=0.030, r=0.119). The mean value of ABR-BIC range of people with normal hearing and SNHL is statistically significant (p=0.001).
    Conclusion: The results showed that the amplitude and latency of ABR-BIC were not correlated with the Persian version of the SHQ in people with normal hearing and with moderate SNHL but statistically significant between the mean amplitude and latency of ABR-BIC in people with normal hearing and people with hearing loss.

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    Background and Aim: The Acceptance Noise Level (ANL) which determines the tolerable noise level while listening to running speech, is related to factors such as hearing loss and speech presentation level. This study aims to investigate the effect of speech presentation level on the ANL in people with unilateral Meniere's Disease (MD) compared to the normal-hearing people.
    Methods: In this study, 33 people aged 32–60 years with unilateral MD and 38 normal-hearing people aged 20–46 years participated. The ANL growth was evaluated unilaterally at four different speech presentation levels: Most Comfortable Level (MCL), –10 dB lower than the MCL, +10 dB higher than the MCL, and a range between MCL and uncomfortable level.
    Results: In MD patients, the ANL of the affected ear was significantly different from that of the contralateral ear (p<0.010). Compared to the normal-hearing people, the pattern of ANL growth in MD patients was significantly different, but the ANL growth patterns were similar between the affected and contralateral ears.
    Conclusion: ANL and its growth pattern are different between the affected and contralateral ears of patients with unilateral MD, but are similar compared to normal-hearing people. Despite the apparently normal hearing thresholds, the performance of the contralateral ear in noise at various speech presentation levels in patients with unilateral MD seems to be similar to that of the affected ear.

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    Background and Aim: Dichotic listening has been defined as the simultaneous stimulation of both ears and has been used to evaluate a listener’s binaural integration/separation ability. Dichotic tests are available in various languages and use varied stimuli. The study aimed to evaluate the differential performance of Tamil-speaking young adults in two tests of dichotic perception namely Dichotic Consonant Vowel (DCV) test and Dichotic Digit Test in Tamil (DDT-T).
    Methods: Sixty adults with normal hearing aged 18 to 35 years were the participants of the study. All the young adults were native speakers of the Tamil language without significant auditory history. DCV and DDT-T were administered in randomized order at 50 dB SL (re: SRT) in free recall condition. The participants were instructed to respond orally and the responses were noted.
    Results: Better performance was observed in dichotic digit compared to DCV test for all participants. This was attributed to the higher number of cues available in DDT-T. Further, error analyses of participants’ responses revealed that voicing errors were higher with the highest errors in the identification of unvoiced consonant /ta/ in both ears. The reason for this could be the lack of contextual cues in DCV test for Tamil-speaking individuals to interpret the voicing feature of a consonant.
    Conclusion: It can be concluded that DDT-T was more useful in assessing binaural integration ability of native Tamil speakers compared to DCV. It is recommended to be used in the behavioral test battery for evaluating auditory processing disorder in native Tamil speakers.

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    Background and Aim: Musical training has been hypothesised to result in enhanced Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) abilities, but prolonged exposure to music also increases the risk for Music-Induced Hearing Loss (MIHL). The Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR) and the Extended High Frequency (EHF) thresholds between formally trained musicians and non-musicians were compared to determine the effect of musical training on musicians’ SPIN and hearing abilities.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study included 40 musicians and 39 non-musicians 18–30 years, with mean age (SD) 22.43(2.71) years. EHF audiometry and the Digits-in-Noise (DIN) test were conducted via a smartphone.
    Results: Differences found between the two groups regarding the DIN test and EHF thresholds were statistically insignificant. Musicians displayed early signs of MIHL as the musicians reported significantly more (p=0.004) instances of tinnitus than non-musicians. A statistically significant correlation was found only for the non-musician group between the 12.5 kHz threshold left and the SNR obtained in the diotic listening condition (rs=-0.465; p=0.003).
    Conclusion: The results suggested that musicians did not display a significant advantage for SPIN and did not appear to have significantly poorer EHF hearing sensitivity. However, slight trends were noticeable in the musicians which gravitated more towards studies that found enhanced SPIN abilities and elevated EHF thresholds in the musician population. In the future, it may be useful to include additional speech tests (open-set) alongside the DIN test (closed-set). The present study suggests that EHF audiometry may be used for the early detection of MIHL.

Short Article

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    Background and Aim:  Real-Ear Unaided Gain(REUG) can reveal the outer-ear resonance which reflects the effects of body and ear factors. Deformity in the outer ear may change the real-ear unaided responses. Cauliflower ear is a common ear deformity in wrestlers. Therefore, the use of required hearing aid gain in people with hearing loss for people with cauliflower ears may be inaccurate and causes dissatisfaction. This study aimed to compare the REUG of normal and cauliflower ear in wrestlers to investigate the frequencies at which the gain may be inaccurate.
    Methods: Ten male wrestlers with the age ranged from 21 to 31 years participated in this study. The study had within-subject design and only one group. The REUGs was recorded for both ears (normal and cauliflower ears) and the results analyzed.
    Results: The mean of REUG values were significantly different between the deformed and normal ears. There were two distinct peaks in the REUG curve of the deformed ear, while there was a single peak in that of the normal ear.
    Conclusion:The differences in the REUG at 2–6 kHz between the deformed and normal ears should be adjusted to reach the optimal hearing level for a hearing aid user with cauliflower ear.