Vol 23 No 6 (2015)

Published: 2015-02-01

Review Article(s)

  • XML | views: 183 | pages: 32-44

    Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI), one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.
    Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.
    Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  • XML | views: 275 | pages: 45-56

    Background and Aim: Creatine plays an important role in the regulation of cellular energy in high energy demand organs such as the inner ear. It is also believed to play a protective role. This article reviewed the mechanisms and effects of creatine on the auditory and vestibular systems.
    Recent Findings: Creatine transporters and creatine kinase enzymes are involved in converting
    creatine to creatine phosphate. Phosphate is a fuel cell available in the cochlear and vestibular hair cells and the protective cells, striavascularis, peripheral and central neural pathways to the auditory cortex. It provides essential ATP for auditory and vestibular system performance. Creatine kinase prevents cochlear damage by regulating the metabolism of energy in marginal layers of the striavascularis and preventing free radical production in stressful situations. It also plays an important role in vestibular compensation. Creatine kinase dysfunction leads to an increase in the threshold of auditory brainstem potentials and a reduction in vestibular performance. The use of creatine improves vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and neurologic symptoms.
    Conclusion: Creatine and creatine kinase protein is essential for normal hearing and balance function and sensitivity. Creatine kinase deficiency impairs the functioning of these two systems; however, creatine consumption may boost the sensitivity of the vestibular system and neurological performance. Effects of the creatine consumption on the auditory system have not yet been examined.

  • XML | views: 367 | pages: 1-16

    Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that deaf children compared with hearing children have problems in all aspects of emotional development, including facial expression, emotional understanding of display rules, mixed and contradictory emotions and theory of mind. This article reviews studies of impaired emotional development in children with hearing impairment.
    Recent Findings: Some findings indicate that young deaf children function similar to hearing children. The difficulty in understanding display rules experienced by deaf children can be explained by appealing to their inability to adequately express emotions in emotion-eliciting contexts, as opposed to their difficulty in understanding mental states. Overall, research findings indicate that emotional understanding in various aspects and dimensions is associated with children's language abilities.
    Conclusion: Results obtained show that more aspects of deaf children 's emotional development (such as interpretation and recognition of facial expression) are similar to that of their peers. However, deaf children performed more poorly in tasks which required experience in understanding display rules and theory of mind . Recent findings generally demonstrate that language plays an important role in the emotional development of children. Therefore, deaf children in comparison to hearing children are less able performers.

Research Article(s)

  • XML | views: 119 | pages: 17-24

    Background and Aim: School-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient (IQ) have different comprehension and narrative skills compared with normal children. This research compared dysfluencies and story comprehension of these students with normal students.
    Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 30 students with borderline intelligence quotient and 25 normal students were compared. Stratified random sampling was used for selection of students. Pictureelicited narrative and comprehension tests were used to study students. The Mann-Whitney U test and the analysis of covariance Spearman correlation test were used for data analysis.
    Results: Students with borderline intelligence quotient produced word dysfluencies and phrasal
    nonfluencies more than normal students (p=0.005, p=0.01, respectively). They also performed more poorly in story comprehension (p=0.002). There was a significant association between phrasal disfluency and story comprehension (r=-0.21).
    Conclusion: Students with borderline intelligence quotient show more dysfluencies in narration and are weaker in story comprehension. There are negative associations between phrasal disfluency and story comprehension.

  • XML | views: 322 | pages: 25-31

    Background and Aim: Deaf children face many psychological problems due to their inability to hear. The present study investigates the effectiveness of art therapy (painting) in reducing the hopelessness and solitude experienced by these children.
    Methods: An experimental design with pre- and post-testing and a control group was used. Multistage method was used for selecting 30 children with hearing impairment (age range: 7-10 years) from Isfahan. Subjects were randomly appointed to experimental and control groups. Data was collected using Kazdin hopelessness scale and Asher solitude scale. Analysis of covariance statistical method was used to analyze the data.
    Results: Findings indicated a significant difference between feelings of hopelessness and solitude of deaf children in experimental and control groups (p<0.001).
    Conclusion: From these findings it can be concluded that art therapy decreases the rate of hopelessness and solitude in deaf children and can be applied as an educational and therapeutic method.

  • XML | views: 163 | pages: 57-65

    Background and Aim: Conversational repair skills are essential for establishing mutually successful verbal communication. Cognitive and linguistic disorders can have negative effects on these skills. Children with hearing loss have special cognitive and linguistic issues. This study was performed to contribute to the paucity of data on conversational repair strategies used by hearing impaired children.
    Methods: The participants included 58 children with moderate hearing loss (38 boys and 20 girls) aged 6 to 7 from Ahvaz city. A cross-sectional study design was used. Frequency of using different types of repair strategies in ten repair situations was calculated. Scores of intelligence, memory, word finding, lexical richness, and mean length of sentences was obtained through cognitive-linguistic tests. Data was analyzed employing an independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and logistic regression.
    Results: A direct correlation was observed between clarification strategy and communicative social intelligence (p=0.045). A direct correlation was observed between applying different types of conversational repair strategies and linguistic abilities in children with moderate hearing loss (p<0.05).
    Conclusion: Children with moderate hearing loss (age: 6-7 years) use repetition more than any other strategy to repair conversation. One unit increase in word finding ability or in mean length of sentence predicts one unit increase in the degree of using repetition strategy.

  • XML | views: 215 | pages: 66-75

    Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful
    disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.
    Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993) over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.
    Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the preand post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the
    reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05) in the parent domain.
    Conclusion: Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of
    mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.

  • XML | views: 139 | pages: 76-84

    Background and Aim: Clinicians and researchers always need standard measures for the evaluation of auditory perception and speech production in deaf children, particularly those with cochlear implants. This study addresses the reliability and validity of the Persian version of categorization of auditory performance (CAP) scale and speech intelligibility rating (SIR) in cochlear-implanted prelingual deaf children.
    Methods: A total of 92 cochlear-implanted deaf children aged 1.3-15.7 years participated in the study. Test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and criterion and construct validity of the scales were investigated.
    Results: The obtained test-retest reliability for categorization of the auditory performance scale and speech intelligibility rating was 0.82 and 0.99 (p<0.01), respectively, whereas the suggested inter-rater reliability based on average Cohen’s kappa coefficient was 0.73 and 0.70 for the two scales (p<0.01), which appear acceptable. The concurrent validity of the scales was 0.64 and 0.69 (p<0.01). The construct validity for categorization of the auditory performance scale ranged between 0.58 and 0.74 (p<0.01), whereas the same feature for the speech intelligibility rating indicated a range between 0.66 and 0.69 (p<0.01).
    Conclusion: The findings of this investigation indicated that both CAPII and SIR scales are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of auditory perception and speech production of cochlear implant deaf children.

  • XML | views: 141 | pages: 85-91

    Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing
    impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.
    Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds) in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups. To gather information, Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. The data were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of covariance statistical method (SPSS version 21).
    Results: Our findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of deaf students of both the groups in the post-test on social adjustment (p=0.0001).
    Conclusion: The use of psychodrama increased the rate of social adjustment in deaf students.

  • XML | views: 218 | pages: 92-98

    Background and Aim: The hearing defects in deaf and hearing-impaired students also affect their cognitive skills such as memory in addition to communication skills. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with that in normal counterparts.
    Method: In the present study, which was a causal-comparative study using the André Rey test, 30 deaf and 30 hearing-impaired students were compared with 30 students in a normal group, and they were matched based on gender, intelligence, educational grade, and socioeconomic status.
    Findings: Findings show that there is significant difference between the three groups’ subjects
    (p<0.05). The average of the normal group was more than that of the other two groups. However, the difference between the two auditory impaired groups was not significant (p>0.05).
    Conclusion: Function of deaf or hard-of-hearing students in the visual working memory task was weaker in comparison with the normal counterparts, while the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups have similar functions. With a better identification and understanding of the factors that affect the development of this cognitive ability, we can offer new methods of teaching and reduce many of the disadvantages of this group of people in the different fields of cognitive science.

  • XML | views: 257 | pages: 99-113

    Background and Aims: The dichotic listening subtest is considered as an important component of the test battery for auditory processing assessment in both children and adults. A randomized dichotic digits test (RDDT) was created to compensate for sensitivity weakness of double digits when detecting abnormal ear asymmetry during dichotic listening. The aim of this study was the development and initial evaluation of the Persian randomized dichotic digits test.
    Method: Persian digits 1-10 (except for the bisyllabic digit, 4) uttered by a native Persian language speaker were recorded in a studio. After alignment of intensity and temporal characteristics of digit waveforms, lists 1 and 2 of the RDDT were reproduced. List 1 of the test was administered at 55 dBHL on 50 right-handed normal hearing individuals (with an equal sex ratio) in the age group of 18-25 years and hearing thresholds of 15 dBHL or better in audiometric frequencies.
    Results: Mean (standard deviation) percent-correct score for right and left ears and right ear advantage of the subjects was 94.3 (5.3), 84.8 (7.7), and 9.5 (7.0) percent, respectively. Sixty percent of the subjects showed normal results and unilateral and bilateral deficits were seen in 24 percent and 16 percent, respectively.
    Conclusion: It seems the Persian version of RDDT is the same as the original test as it is able to test ear asymmetry, unilateral and bilateral deficits in dichotic listening.

  • XML | views: 173 | pages: 114-122

    Background and Aim: Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the elderly; using a hearing aid to alleviate auditory impairment can positively affect their quality of life. This research aimed to determine the level of satisfaction concerning hearing aids in elderly people with hearing impairment based on the type and degree of hearing loss.
    Methods: An analytic cross-sectional research design was used; the sample included 40 elderly people who used hearing aids. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) age classification, participants were divided into two age groups: 65-74 years (n=20) and 75-90 years (n=20). Satisfaction levels were assessed using a standard satisfaction with amplification in daily life (SADL) questionnaire.
    Results: Satisfaction levels in the 65-74 age group were significantly higher than that in the 75-90 age
    group (p=0.02). Participants with mixed hearing loss revealed higher satisfaction levels than
    participants with sensorineural hearing loss (p=0.02). On the negative effects dimension, participants with severe hearing loss exhibited significantly higher satisfaction levels than participants with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss (p=0.01).
    Conclusion: Total satisfaction mean scores were relatively high in the elderly participants. Negative features could be reduced via careful consultation regarding the aids’ amplifying capabilities and limitations in groups with moderate or moderate to severe hearing loss.