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Auditory and Vestibular Research is the official scientific quarterly double blind peer-reviewed publication of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. It is supported by Iranian Association of Audiology and Iranian Society of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

The aim of this journal is to provide the clinicians and researchers with the major clinical and basic science contributions in audiology. AVR provides readers with the latest clinical, educational, experimental, pediatric, geriatric, industrial and rehabilitative audiology, and auditory and vestibular neuroscience findings. It accepts original research papers in the form of full-length papers, letters to the Editor, reviews, and case-reports.

As part of its commitment to support a greater global exchange of knowledge, this journal provides immediate open access to its content.

This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).


Articles in Press

Current Issue

Vol 32 No 4 (2023)

Research Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | views: 96 | pages: 255-260

    Background and Aim: One of the effects of having a disabled child on the parents is the experience of anxiety. Parents, especially mothers, blame themselves for their child’s problems and disabilities, and this anxiety can endanger the child’s mental health. The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of compassion-focused therapy on the anxiety levels of mothers with hearing-impaired children.
    Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest/post-test design using a control group. The study population consists of all mothers with hearing-impaired children aged 30–40 years studying at Naghme School for the hearing-impaired in Yazd, Iran. A total of 30 mothers were selected using a purposive sampling technique and were randomly assigned into groups of control (n=15) and intervention (n=15). The intervention group received eight 90-minute sessions of compassion therapy, while the control group received no treatment. The Cattle Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
    Results: The mean and standard deviation of the pretest CAQ score was 63.25±7.70 for the intervention group. After the treatment, the mean and standard deviation of CAQ score was 44.02±6.32 for the intervention group. The results of ANCOVA showed an improvement in the cattle anxiety questionnaire scores of adolescents after intervention (p<0.001).
    Conclusion: Compassion-focused therapy can improve the anxiety levels of parents with hearing-impaired children. Therefore, the use of this treatment method is recommended to specialists in this field.

  • XML | PDF | views: 66 | pages: 261-271

    Background and Aim: The Frequency Importance Function (FIF) is the main component of the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) for a certain language. The FIF indicates the relative importance of each frequency band as it contributes to speech intelligibility. This study was conducted to determine the FIF for the Persian monosyllabic words and the list of Quick Speech in Noise (QSIN) in Persian language.
    Methods: In this exploration study, 34 monolingual Persian-speaking subjects aged 25–40 years with normal hearing (17 males) were included. The FIF was evaluated for 100 monosyllabic words and 30 sentences of Persian QSIN under 180 different auditory conditions. The speech recognition scores were calculated and crossover frequencies were determined. Then, the relative transfer function was extracted and FIFs were calculated.
    Results: The findings showed that for monosyllabic word material, the FIF had three peaks at 178, 1787, and 4467 Hz and for Persian QSIN, the FIF had an initial peak at about 141 Hz followed by a peak at about 1800 Hz. According to the results, the frequency range 891–8913 Hz is very important for recognition of the Persian words. Moreover, the mean crossover frequencies for the Persian sentences was 1446 Hz.
    Conclusion: For monosyllabic word material in the Persian language, the FIF at 708–1778 Hz is very important for recognition of the Persian monosyllabic words. For sentence material in the Persian Language, the FIF at 708–4467 Hz has the highest importance for recognition of Persian sentences.

  • XML | PDF | views: 73 | pages: 272-283

    Background and Aim: Vestibular Rehabilitation (VR) is a well-accepted treatment for Unilateral Vestibulopathy (UVP). Since noisy Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (nGVS) improves the processing of vestibular inputs, we assessed the synergistic effects of adding nGVS to vestibular rehabilitation for the treatment of UVP.
    Methods: Patients with UVP were randomly assigned into two groups receiving either VR for four weeks (VR group, n=12) or VR for four weeks combined with nGVS for three sessions (VR+nGVS group; n=12). Outcome measurements were postural control parameters measured with eyes open/closed conditions on hard/soft surfaces, Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) gain, and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) scores that were assessed at baseline and after four weeks.
    Results: All postural control parameters, mean total and subscale scores of DHI, and mean VOR gain in directions of affected canals significantly improved in both groups after interventions (p<0.05) except mean mediolateral displacement in conditions with eyes closed on hard surface and with eyes open on soft surface, mean mediolateral velocity in conditions with eyes closed on hard surface, ability to stance with eye closed condition on soft surface and mean emotional subscale of DHI in VR group. Improvements were significantly higher in postural control outcomes measured in stances with eyes closed on hard surface and with eyes open and closed on soft surface, mean VOR gains in directions of affected horizontal and anterior canals, and mean total, physical, and functional scores of DHI in VR+nGVS group (p<0.05).
    Conclusion: When combined with VR, nGVS shows additional therapeutic effects in UVP patients.
    Study protocol location:
    IRCT Registration Number: IRCT20160131026279N4

  • XML | PDF | views: 101 | pages: 284-294

    Background and Aim: Tinnitus is a common disorder of the auditory system with a rich history dating back to ancient times. This review aims to provide a historical perspective on tinnitus in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) by summarizing the views of TPM scholars on its etiology and treatment.
    Methods: A qualitative research (summative content analysis) was conducted, utilizing TPM texts to identify the historical perspectives of TPM scholars on tinnitus. The analysis focused on their understanding of tinnitus, its causes, and recommended treatments.
    Results: In TPM, tinnitus was referred to as Tanin and Davi. The accumulation of phlegm and internal gases in the head or ears was considered as the main cause of tinnitus, with sudden movement or ripple of these vapors leading to auditory nerve stimulation and resulting in tinnitus. TPM scholars recommended addressing the sources of these vapors, such as gastrointestinal issues, and promoting humeral balance through temperament modification and the use of medicinal herbs for treatment.
    Conclusion: The TPM view on tinnitus was similar to the Greco-Roman understanding of the disease, with Persian scholars expanding on its details. TPM scholars believed in addressing the underlying causes of tinnitus and promoting humeral balance to alleviate symptoms. These historical perspectives provide insight into traditional medical systems and their approaches to the management of health conditions.

  • XML | PDF | views: 62 | pages: 295-301

    Background and Aim: Contact lenses correct the visual functioning of patients with low vision due to congenital nystagmus. This research presents a new method to reduce nystagmus using contact lenses in healthy subjects.
    Methods: Thirty-three normal people (13 women, 20 men) aged 18 to 25 with an average age of 23.3 years participated in this study. In the studied subjects, nystagmus was evoked by an optokinetic stimulus. Then, it was measured and recorded. Next, the Conventional Contact Lens (CCL) and a special lens that was designed and made heavier than the conventional lenses were placed in the eyes of the participants. Once again, nystagmus was recorded with the optokinetic stimulus while the contact lens was placed in the participant’s eyes.
    Results: No significant difference was observed for the Slow Phase Velocity (SPV) and gain of nystagmus with and without CCL (p>0.05), but this parameter had a significant difference with and without Weighted Contact Lenses (WCL) (p<0.05). Also, the comparison between the two lenses demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.05), which indicates the positive effect of the WCL in reducing the SPV and gain of nystagmus.
    Conclusion: Using weighted contact lenses can significantly reduce the SPV and gain of optokinetic nystagmus in healthy subjects. Investigating the effect of this lens in inhibiting pathological nystagmus is recommended in future research.

  • XML | PDF | views: 48 | pages: 302-313

    Background and Aim: Real-Ear Measurement (REM) enables proper fitting of the hearing aids to achieve the required level of amplification. This study aims to investigate the relationship between aural/oral performance and fit-to-target gain of hearing aids in children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss aged 5–10 years. First, the parents’ evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) questioanire was completed. Then, REM was performed using digital speech at 50, 65, 80, and 90 dB SPL at 250–8000 Hz to obtain the fit to the desired sensation level, version 5 (DSL v5) target gain.
    Results: A significant negative correlation was found between the total score of the PEACH (51.66) and the fit-to-target gain at high frequencies (r=–0.482, p=0.01). The maximum fit-to-target gain was 77.5 dB for 65 dB SPL at 6000 Hz. Most of the cases (75%) failed to come within ±5 dB of the target gain. There was a significant difference in the fit-to-target gain between low and high frequencies and between high frequencies with similar input levels.
    Conclusion: A negative correlation between aural/oral performance of children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss and fit-to-target gain of their hearing aids may indicate that a low fit-to-target gain can improve their aural/oral performance. Regular use of REM is recommended in prescribing hearing aids to these children.

  • XML | PDF | views: 64 | pages: 314-321

    Background and Aim: Numerous studies have investigated the effect of binaural beat stimulation on visual attention. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of binaural beats on both auditory and visual sustained attention of young people with normal hearing.
    Methods: Thirty normal-hearing people with mean age of 27.77±6.85 years were divided into two groups of Sham-Binaural beat (SB, n=15) and Binaural beat-Sham (BS, n=15). The participants in each group performed the Integrated Visual and Auditory-2 Continuous Performance Test (IVA-2 CPT) twice on different days. The SB group performed the IVA-2 CPT first under sham condition and then in the presence of binaural beats. In the BS group, the order was reversed in terms of stimuli presentation. The binaural beat stimulus was an audio file that induced beats at a frequency of 16 Hz by presenting 400 and 416 Hz stimuli to the right and left ears, respectively. The sham stimulus was a pure tone of 400 HZ. A mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means.
    Results: The results showed the significant effect of binaural beat stimulation on auditory sustained attention (p<0.001). However, its effect on visual sustained attention was not significant (p=0.061).
    Conclusion: Stimulation with binaural beats of 16 Hz may improve the auditory sustained attention in young people with normal hearing. It cannot improve their visual sustained attention.

  • XML | PDF | views: 50 | pages: 322-333

    Background and Aim: Evidence-based practice improves the quality of clinical performance. Attitude affects the implementation of research findings into practice. The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS-36) evaluates the attitude of therapists toward evidence-based practice. The present study aimed to provide a validated Persian translation of the EBPAS-36 for audiologists.
    Methods: The original EBPAS-36 was translated by using the international quality of life assessment protocol. The validity of translated version was surveyed by an expert panel and the Persian version with 35 questions was yielded. A demographic questionnaire and EBPAS P-35 were given to 182 audiologists to evaluate the psychometric properties. The reliability was evaluated by completing the EBPAS P-35 after 2 weeks by 30 of the participants and Cronbach’s alpha and Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) were calculated. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were also conducted.
    Results: The content validity ratio was above 0.33 for all except item 10 which was removed from the Persian version. The mean(SD) total score was 2.38(0.46). A significant relationship was observed between the total score and all subscales (p<0.05). The original factor structure showed an acceptable model fit (CMIN/DF=1.39, GFI=0.84, CFI=0.94, IFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.04) confirming the 12-factor structure of the EBPAS-36. The internal consistency was very good for the total score (α=0.88) and adequate to very good for the subscales (0.65–0.84), indicating high reliability. The ICC showed good agreement in the score of test-retest (total ICC=0.65).
    Conclusion: This study confirms good psychometric properties and validity of the EBPAS P-35 in a sample of audiologists.

  • XML | PDF | views: 43 | pages: 334-343

    Background and Aim: The increasing trend of hearing loss is an important public health concern that needs coordinated and well-designed measures at the regional, global, and local levels. We determined the audiological profile of a province in Iran with unique socioeconomic, ethnic, and geographical characteristics and investigated the risk factors associated with hearing loss.
    Methods: A total number of 1845 participants (35–70 years old) were recruited in the current prospective study. Pure tone audiometry and tympanometry tests were conducted to determine the type and severity of hearing loss in adults living in southwest Iran (Arab ethnicity). The hearing loss prevalence in individuals with a history of head trauma, cardiovascular disease, noise exposure, diabetes, and smoking status was compared with that of disease-free participants.
    Results: The hearing loss prevalence was 51.3% (947/1845), which was significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors, including age, gender, marital status, educational level, skill levels, wealth status, Townsend deprivation index, and smoking habit (p<0.001). The hearing loss prevalence showed a significant association with a history of diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, smoking habits, head trauma, and noise exposure (p<0.05). Nonetheless, the prevalence of hearing loss and the type of residency, and the wealth index were not significantly associated.
    Conclusion: Hearing loss causes the burden of chronic disability in southwest of Iran. Several socioeconomic, demographic, and medical parameters influence the consequences of hearing loss.

  • XML | PDF | views: 203 | pages: 344-350

    Background and Aim: The human blood group system can have an effect on the health and auditory system. The present study aimed to determine the differences in the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) recordings among persons with different blood groups (AB, A, B, O).
    Methods: Sixty adults aged between 18 and 25 years with normal hearing sensitivity took part in the study. Further, they were grouped into four groups based on their blood groups (A, B, AB, O). Each group consisted of 15 participants. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded for all the participants at different rates (11.1/s and 90.1/s).
    Results: The results of the study showed that the amplitude of ABR waves was significantly reduced for individuals with blood group O at lower repetition rate. The amplitude and latency of wave V was reduced at higher repetition rate among individuals with blood group O. There was no significant difference for all the other parameters across the groups.
    Conclusion: The result of the study suggests the possibility of lesser auditory nerve functioning and increased risk of cochlear synaptopathy in persons with the O blood group.

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