Research Article

The effect of mild to moderate hearing impairment on Persian dichotic digit test in young children


Background and Aim: Hearing impaired students experience binaural hearing like normal peers and school age is challenging time for using dichotic listening. Lack of research was found on relationship of Persian hearing impair­ed children with central auditory processing (CAP). One of the aims of this study was a comparison between Persian dichotic digit test (DDT) score in children with mild and moderate hearing loss (HL) and normal ones.
Methods: Forty one hearing impaired children (16 mild HL and 25 moderate HL) and 41 subjects with normal hearing all between 7-12 years of age, in both genders (sex has no effect on this test), were selected and tested Persian DDT. Results from Right Ear/Left Ear scores, Right Ear Advantage (REA) and age effect were collected and compared with normal subjects.
Results: Results of this study showed the average of 89.07% correct scores in right ear and 82.24% in left ear. The difference between both ears was 6.83%. Comparison of the right ear correct scores and left ear correct scores showed a significant REA (p<0.05). But no significant differences were seen in comparing mild and moderate hearing loss groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study pointed out which Persian DDT is not affected by mild-to-mode­rate sensory neural hearing loss. However, you­nger children need more interval time between two items to respond to the tests.

1. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Technical report (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders: Working Group on Auditory Processing Disorder. 2005.
2. Chermak GD, Musiek FE. Central auditory processing disorders: new perspectives. 1st ed. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc; 1997.
3. Bellis TJ. Assessment & management of central auditory processing disorders in the educational setting: from science to practice. 2nd ed. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar; 2003.
4. Geffner D, Ross-Swain D. Auditory processing disorders: assessment, management, and treatment. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing Group; 2013.
5. Szelag E, Skarzynski H, Senderski A, Lewandowska M. Hearing loss and auditory processing disorders: Clinical and experimental perspectives. In: Han S, Pöppel E, editors. Culture and neural frames of cognition and communication. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2011. p. 153-68.
6. Henry KS, Heinz MG. Effects of sensorineural hearing loss on temporal coding of narrowband and broadband signals in the auditory periphery. Hear Res. 2013;303:39-47.
7. Oates PA, Kurtzberg D, Stapells DR. Effects of sensorineural hearing loss on cortical event-related potential and behavioral measures of speech-sound processing. Ear Hear. 2002;23(5):399-415.
8. Miltenberger GE, Dawson GJ, Raica AN. Central auditory testing with peripheral hearing loss. ArchOtolaryngol. 1978;104(1):11-5.
9. Koravand A, Jutras B, Lassonde M. Auditory event related potentials in children with peripheral hearing loss. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124(7):1439-47.
10. Koravand A, Jutras B, Roumy N. Peripheral hearing loss and auditory temporal ordering ability in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74(1):50-5.
11. Leigh-Paffenroth ED, Roup CM, Noe CM. Behavioral and electrophysiologic binaural processing in persons with symmetric hearing loss. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22(3):181-93.
12. Sininger YS, Doyle K, Moore JK. The case for early identification of hearing loss in children. Auditory system development, experimental auditory deprivation, and development of speech perception and hearing. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999;46(1):1-14.
13. Blamey PJ, Sarant JZ, Paatsch LE. Relationships among speech perception, production, language, hearing loss, and age in children with impaired hearing. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2001;44(2):264-85.
14. Moeller MP. Early intervention and language development in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Pediatrics. 2000;106(3):E43.
15. Yoshinaga-Itano C. Levels of evidence: universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) and early hearing detection and intervention systems (EHDI). J Commun Disord. 2004;37(5):451-65.
16. Quittner AL, Barker DH, Cruz I, Snell C, Grimley ME, Botteri M; the CDaCI Investigative Team. Parenting Stress among Parents of Deaf and Hearing Children: Associations with Language Delays and Behavior Problems. Parent Sci Pract. 2010;10(2):136-155.
17. Hintermair M. Parental resources, parental stress, and socioemotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2006;11(4):493-513.
18. Miltenberger GE, Dawson GJ, Raica AN. Central auditory testing with peripheral hearing loss. Arch Otolaryngol. 1978;104(1):11-5.
19. Neijenhuis K, Tschur H, Snik A. The effect of mild hearing impairment on auditory processing tests. J Am Acad Audiol. 2004;15(1):6-16.
20. Moncrieff DW. Dichotic listening in children: age-related changes in direction and magnitude of ear advantage. Brain Cogn. 2011;76(2):316-22.
21. Shahmir B, Hajiabolhassan F, Mohammad-khani G, Tahaei AA, Jalaie S. Development and evaluation of the reliability of Persian version of double dichotic digit test in girls aged 7 to 11 years. Aud Vest Res. 2015;24(3):164-7.
22. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Central auditory processing: current status of research and implications for clinical practice (technical report). 1996. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
23. Iliadou V, Bamiou DE, Kaprinis S, Kandylis D, Kaprinis G. Auditory processing disorders in children suspected of learning disabilities--a need for screening? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(7):1029-34.
24. Mukari SZ, Keith RW, Tharpe AM, Johnson CD. Development and standardization of single and double dichotic digit tests in the Malay language. Int J Audiol. 2006;45(6):344-52.
25. Moncrieff DW, Wilson RH. Recognition of randomly presented one-, two-, and three-pair dichotic digits by children and young adults. J Am Acad Audiol. 2009;20(1):58-70.
26. Neijenhuis K, Snik A, Priester G, van Kordenoordt S, van den Broek P. Age effects and normative data on a Dutch test battery for auditory processing disorders. Int J Audiol. 2002;41(6):334-46.
IssueVol 25 No 1 (2016) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Hearing impairment Persian dichotic digit test young children

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Rahbar N, Motasaddi Zarandy M, Ashayeri H, Mahmoodi Bakhtiari B, Kamali M. The effect of mild to moderate hearing impairment on Persian dichotic digit test in young children. Aud Vestib Res. 2015;25(1):1-6.