Acceptable noise level in learning disordered children

  • Shno Koiek Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Akram Pourbakht Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Ebrahim Mahdavi Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Ali Akbar Tahaei Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Acceptable noise level, children, learning disorder, examiner-adjusted method, self-adjusted method

Abstract

Background and Aim: Acceptable noise level (ANL) measures the amount of accepted background noise while listening to the story. In the current study, ANL was carried out in chil­dren with learning disability (LD) and compared with the results of normal children by using examiner- and self-adjusted methods.Methods: Forty seven (25 male, 22 female) normal children with good and better educational background and 46 (27 male, 19 female) LD children ranging in age from 7-12 years old were participated. ANL was assessed using an ear-level loudspeaker in front of children. The differences of ANL, most comfortable level (MCL), and background noise level (BNL) between groups and their relationship between examiner- and self-adjusted procedures were investigated.Results: Mean ANLs of LD children either in examiner- or self-adjusted methods (8.91±4.66 and 11.00±5.38, respectively) were worse than those of normal children (7.19±3.63 and 9.61±3.41, respectively). The difference between mean ANL of normal and LD children was statistically significant only for examiner-adjusted method (p=0.05). There were also significant differences in BNL between groups for examiner- and self-adjusted method (p<0.05). A strong positive correlation was found between examiner- and self-adjusted conditions for ANL, MCL, and BNL among groups (p<0.001).Conclusion: ANL is clinically applicable in LD children. Moreover, LD children accept lower background noise; therefore modification of their listening environment is recommended. Because of a strong positive relationship between ANL in examiner- and self-adjusted pro­cedures, both methods can be implemented in different situations.

References

1. Shield BM, Dockrell JE. The effects of noise on children at school: a review. Building Acoustics. 2003;10(2):97-106.
2. Calder Stegemann K. Learning disabilities in Canada. Learning Disabilities--A Contemporary Journal. 2016;14(1):53-62.
3. First MB, Tasman A. DSM-IV-TR mental disorders: diagnosis, etiology and treatment. 1st ed. Chichester: Wiley; 2004.
4. Nabelek AK, Pickett JM. Monaural and binaural speech perception through hearing aids under noise and reverberation with normal and hearing-impaired listeners. J Speech Hear Res. 1974;17(4):724-39. doi: 10.1044/jshr.1704.724
5. Chermak GD, Musiek FE. Central auditory processing disorders: new perspectives. 1st ed. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc; 1997.
6. Cunningham J, Nicol T, Zecker SG, Bradlow A, Kraus N. Neurobiologic responses to speech in noise in children with learning problems: deficits and strategies for improvement. Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;112(5):758-67. doi: 10.1016/S1388-2457(01)00465-5
7. Bradlow AR, Kraus N, Hayes E. Speaking clearly for children with learning disabilities: sentence perception in noise. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2003;46(1):80-97. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2003/007)
8. Cortiella C, Horowitz SH. The state of learning disabilities: facts, trends and emerging issues. New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities; 2014. 2-45.
9. Nabelek AK, Tucker FM, Letowski TR. Toleration of background noises: relationship with patterns of hearing aid use by elderly persons. J Speech Hear Res. 1991;34(3):679-85. doi: 10.1044/jshr.3403.679
10. Freyaldenhoven MC, Smiley DF. Acceptance of background noise in children with normal hearing. J Educ Audiol. 2006;13:27-31.
11. Nabelek AK, Freyaldenhoven MC, Tampas JW, Burchfiel SB, Muenchen RA. Acceptable noise level as a predictor of hearing aid use. J Am Acad Audiol. 2006;17(9):626-39. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.17.9.2
12. Harkrider AW, Tampas JW. Differences in responses from the cochleae and central nervous systems of females with low versus high acceptable noise levels. J Am Acad Audiol. 2006;17(9):667-76. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.17.9.6
13. Warrier CM, Johnson KL, Hayes EA, Nicol T, Kraus N. Learning impaired children exhibit timing deficits and training-related improvements in auditory cortical responses to speech in noise. Exp Brain Res. 2004;157(4):431-41. doi: 10.1007/s00221-004-1857-6
14. Nagarajan S, Mahncke H, Salz T, Tallal P, Roberts T, Merzenich MM. Cortical auditory signal processing in poor readers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(11):6483-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.96.11.6483
15. King C, Warrier CM, Hayes E, Kraus N. Deficits in auditory brainstem pathway encoding of speech sounds in children with learning problems. Neurosci Lett. 2002;319(2):111-5. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02556-3
16. Sheehan G, Houghton J, Searchfield GD. Acceptability of background noise amongst children diagnosed with an auditory processing disorder. Speech Lang Hear. 2016;19(3):180-8. doi: 10.1080/2050571X.2016.1182310
17. Iliadou V, Bamiou DE, Kaprinis S, Kandylis D, Kaprinis G. Auditory Processing Disorders in children suspected of Learning Disabilities--a need for screening? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(7):1029-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.04.004
18. Bellis TJ. Assessment and management of central auditory processing disorders in the educational setting from science to practice. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing; 2011.
19. Petermann F, Petermann U. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children®–Fourth Edition. 2011.
20. Hosaini M, Moradi A, Kormi Nouri R, Hassani J, Parhoon H. [Reliability and validity of reading and dyslexia test (NEMA)]. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2016;18(1):22-34. Persian.
21. Mohammadesmaeil E, Hooman HA. [Adaptation and standardization of the IRAN KEY-MATH test of mathematics]. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2003;2(4):323-32. Persian.
22. Shokoohi-Yekta M, Parand A, Rezaie M. [Learning disabilities]. Tehran: Tabib; 2006. Persian.
23. ANSI A. S3. 21 (R2009), Methods for manual pure-tone threshold audiometry. New York: American National Standards Institute. 2004.
24. Ahmadi A, Fatahi J, Keshani A, Jalilvand H, Modarresi Y, Jalaie S. [Developing and evaluating the reliability of acceptable noise level test in Persian language]. J Rehab Med. 2015;4(2):109-17. Persian.
25. Taghavi SM, Geshani A, Rouhbakhsh N, Mardani SH. Acceptable noise level test: bases and theories. Aud and Vest Res. 2017;26(4):184-94.
26. King WM, Lombardino LJ, Crandell CC, Leonard CM. Comorbid auditory processing disorder in developmental dyslexia. Ear Hear. 2003;24(5):448-56. doi: 10.1097/01.AUD.0000090437.10978.1A
27. Ramus F. Developmental dyslexia: specific phonological deficit or general sensorimotor dysfunction? Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13(2):212-8. doi: 10.1016/S0959-4388(03)00035-7
28. Freyaldenhoven MC, Thelin JW, Plyler PN, Nabelek AK, Burchfield SB. Effect of stimulant medication on the acceptance of background noise in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Audiol. 2005;16(9):677-86.
Published
2018-02-28
How to Cite
1.
Koiek S, Pourbakht A, Mahdavi ME, Tahaei AA. Acceptable noise level in learning disordered children. Aud Vestib Res. 27(2):86-2.
Section
Research Article(s)