Review Article

Legal Protect of the Deaf in International Documents and the Iranian Legal System


Background and Aim: This article seeks to examine rights of deaf and unable to hear individuals in international documents as well as domestic Iranian law. In this review, supports in the mentioned documents are discussed and the weaknesses, strengths, objections, and challenges in the laws are analyzed and examined. Lack of access to community facilities lead to marginalization of deaf people. Access to community facilities is an important factor that creates equal opportunities and realizes rights of deaf people.
Recent Findings: Iran’s accession to the Treaty on the Rights of disabled people, the Global treaty on Cultural, Public, Economic as well as Children’s title, is one of salient points of these protection laws. By implementing Iran’s national and global commitments regarding titles of the deaf, it is concluded that Comprehensive Law and its executive regulations have been adopted several years before accession to the Contract on the Disability, but they cover most of concepts of the Contract on Education.
Conclusion: Given the Senate and the convention, no significant legal action was taken and the program did not address deaf directly. The lack of an effective mechanism for laws protecting the disabled people right is an institutional as well as structural obstacle for realization of disabled people, especially deaf.

[1] Deng X, Finitzo T, Aryal S. Measuring Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) quality across the continuum of care. EGEMS (Wash DC). 2018;6(1):18. [DOI:10.5334/egems.239]
[2] Lipkin DP, Canepa-Anson R, Stephens MR, Poole-Wilson PA. Factors determining symptoms in heart failure: comparison of fast and slow exercise tests. Br Heart J. 1986;55(5):439-45. [DOI:10.1136/hrt.55.5.439]
[3] Newbold KB. The urban geography of segregation. In: Kourtit K, Newbold KB, Nijkamp P, Partridge M, editors. The economic geography of cross-border migration. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 2021. p. 293-306. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-48291-6_13]
[4] Davidson K, Lillo-Martin D, Chen Pichler D. Spoken English language development among native signing children with cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2014;19(2):238-50. [DOI:10.1093/deafed/ent045]
[5] Haddadi Aval M, Abdollahi F, Jafarzadeh S. Auditory rehabilitation based on auditory verbal therapy approach on children with bilateral sensory-neural hearing loss. Aud Vestib Res. 2020;29(3):172-7. [DOI:10.18502/avr.v29i3.3850]
[6] Lacour M, Helmchen C, Vidal PP. Vestibular compensation: the neuro-otologist’s best friend. J Neurol. 2016;263 Suppl 1:S54-64. [DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7903-4]
[7] Michelson PL, McCaslin DL, Jacobson GP, Petrak M, English L, Hatton K. Assessment of subjective visual vertical (SVV) using the “Bucket Test” and the Virtual SVV System. Am J Audiol. 2018;27(3):249-59. [DOI:10.1044/2018_AJA-17-0019]
[8] Kheradmand A, Gonzalez G, Otero-Millan J, Lasker A. Visual perception of upright: Head tilt, visual errors and viewing eye. J Vestib Res. 2016;25(5-6):201-9. [DOI:10.3233/VES-160565]
[9] Brandt T, Dieterich M, Danek A. Vestibular cortex lesions affect the perception of verticality. Ann Neurol. 1994;35(4):403-12. [DOI:10.1002/ana.410350406]
[10] Barra J, Marquer A, Joassin R, Reymond C, Metge L, Chauvineau V, et al. Humans use internal models to construct and update a sense of verticality. Brain. 2010;133(Pt 12):3552-63. [DOI:10.1093/brain/awq311]
[11] Van Beuzekom AD, Van Gisbergen JA. Properties of the internal representation of gravity inferred from spatial-direction and body-tilt estimates. J Neurophysiol. 2000;84(1):11-27. [DOI:10.1152/jn.2000.84.1.11/F]
[12] National Association of the Deaf. Legal rights: The guide for deaf and hard of hearing people. 6th ed. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; 2015.
[13] Achenbach TM, Rescorla L. A. Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. An Integrated System of Multi-Informant Assessment. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research center for children, youth, & families; 2000.
[14] Antia SD, Kreimeyer KH. Social competence of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. 1st ed. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press; 2015.
[15] Barker DH, Quittner AL, Fink NE, Eisenberg LS, Tobey EA, Niparko JK, CDaCI Investigative Team. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: the influences of language, attention, and parent-child communication. Dev Psychopathol. 2009;21(2):373-92. [DOI:10.1017/S0954579409000212]
[16] Brockow I, Praetorius M, Neumann K, am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen A, Mohnike K, Matulat P, et al. [Universal newborn hearing screening: Definition of uniform parameters by the Association of German Hearing Screening Centers as a requirement for nationwide evaluation with valid results]. HNO. 2014;62(3):165-70. [DOI:10.1007/s00106-014-2834-4]
[17] Calderon R, Greenberg M. Social and emotional development of deaf children: family, school, and program effects. In: Marschark M, Spencer PE, editors. The Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education, Volume 1. 2nd ed. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press; 2011. p. 188-99. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199750986.013.0014]
[18] Briggs-Gowan MJ, Carter AS. Infant-toddler social and emotional assessment (ITSEA). San Antonio: Pearson; 2006. [DOI:10.1037/t14990-000]
[19] Ching TY, Dillon H, Marnane V, Hou S, Day J, Seeto M, et al. Outcomes of early- and late-identified children at 3 years of age: findings from a prospective populationbased study. Ear Hear. 2013;34(5):535-52. [DOI:10.1097/AUD.0b013e3182857718]
[20] Cupples L, Ching TY, Crowe K, Seeto M, Leigh G, Street L, et al. Outcomes of 3-year-old children with hearing loss and different types of additional disabilities. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2014;19(1):20-39. [DOI:10.1093/deafed/ent039]
[21] Dammeyer J, Marschark M. Level of educational attainment among deaf adults who attended bilingual-bicultural programs. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2016;21(4):394-402. [DOI:10.1093/deafed/enw036]
[22] Deimann P, Kastner-Koller U. Maternal evaluations of young children’s developmental status: a comparison of clinic- and non-clinic-groups. Psychol Test Assess Model. 2011;53(2):214-27.
[23] Dirks E, Uilenburg N, Rieffe C. Parental stress among parents of toddlers with moderate hearing loss. Res Dev Disabil. 2016;55:27-36. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2016.03.008]
[24] Dowling M. Young children′s personal, social and emotional development. 4th ed. London: SAGE Publications Ltd; 2014.
[25] Duchesne L. Grammatical competence after early cochlear implantation. In: Marschark M, Spencer PE, editors. The Oxford handbook of deaf studies in language. 1st ed. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. 2016. p. 113-31. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190241414.013.8]
[26] Fagan MK. Spoken vocabulary development in deaf children with and without cochlear implants. In: Marschark M, Spencer PE, editors. The Oxford handbook of deaf studies in language. 1st ed. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. 2016. p. 132-45 [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190241414.013.9]
[27] Fenson, L, Dale PS, Reznick JS, Bates E, Thal D, Pethick S. Technical manual for the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. San Diego, CA: San Diego University, Developmental Psychology Laboratory; 1993.
IssueVol 31 No 2 (2022) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Disability hard of hearing human rights international law low hearing loss

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Ataee A, Noori V, Pourkhaghan Z. Legal Protect of the Deaf in International Documents and the Iranian Legal System. Aud Vestib Res. 2022;31(2):84-91.