Research Article

Screening of Auditory Processing Disorders in School- Aged Children in Tehran, Iran Using the Auditory Processing Domain Questionnaire

Abstract

Background and Aim: Early detection of auditory processing disorders (APD) is essential for preventing learning and educational problems in school-aged children. It is crucial to take into account the comorbidity with APD, as well. The goal of APD screening is to obtain the basic information about those with auditory disorders to be referred for further evaluation. This study aimed to identify the elementary school students at risk of APD in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: Participants were the parents of 536 children selected from 11 elementary schools in four districts of Tehran city. The schools in each district were selected by a random clustering method. The auditory system of students was first evaluated. The parents were then asked to complete the Persian version of the auditory processing domain questionnaire (APDQ).
Results: The prevalence of APD was 3.3% in girls and 8.3% in boys and the difference between them was statistically significant (p=0.021). The overall prevalence of APD was 4.6% based on the cut-off points of four APDQ domains, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.6.
Conclusion: It is necessary to screen APD in school-aged children to minimize learning and educational problems in them. Moreover, there is a need for developing screening methods to provide timely detection and appropriate intervention for those at risk of APD.

[1] Yalçinkaya F, Muluk NB, Sahin S. Effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who were suspected of auditory processing difficulty. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(8):1137-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.04.022]
[2] O’Hara B, Mealings K. Developing the auditory processing domains questionnaire (APDQ): a differential screening tool for auditory processing disorder. Int J Audiol. 2018;57(10):764-75. [DOI:10.1080/14992027.2018.1487087]
[3] Vanniasegaram I, Cohen M, Rosen S. Evaluation of selected auditory tests in school-age children suspected of auditory processing disorders. Ear Hear. 2004;25(6):586-97. [DOI:10.1097/01.aud.0000151575.58269.19]
[4] Iliadou V, Bamiou D-E, Kaprinis S, Kandylis D, Kaprinis G. Auditory processing disorders in children suspected of learning disabilities- A need for screening? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(7):1029-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.04.004]
[5] Rosen S, Cohen M, Vanniasegaram I. Auditory and cognitive abilities of children suspected of auditory processing disorder (APD). Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74(6):594-600. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2010.02.021]
[6] Jerger J, Musiek F. Report of the consensus conference on the diagnosis of auditory processing disorders in school-aged children. J Am Acad Audiol. 2000;11(9):467-74.
[7] Tillery KL. Central auditory processing evaluation: a test battery approach. In: Katz J, Medwetsky L, Robert B, Hood LJ, editors. In: Handbook of clinical audiology. 6th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 545-59.
[8] Schow RL, Seikel JA, Chermak GD, Berent M. Central auditory processes and test measures: ASHA 1996 revisited. Am J Audiol. 2000;9(2):63-8. [DOI:10.1044/1059-0889(2000/013)]
[9] Cacace AT, McFarland DJ. Central auditory processing disorder in school-aged children: a critical review. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1998;41(2):355-73. [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4102.355]
[10] Geffner D. Central auditory processing disorders: definition, description, and behaviors. In: Geffner D, Ross-Swain D, editors. Auditory processing disorders: assessment, management, and treatment. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing Inc.; 2013. p. 59-90.
[11] Ahmadi Z, Jarollahi F, Ahadi M, Hosseini AF. Normalization and validation of auditory processing domain questionnaire in normal 8-12 year-old children. Aud Vestib Res. 2017;26(2):98-103.
[12] Conners CK, Sitarenios G, Parker JD, Epstein JN. The revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R): Factor structure, reliability, and criterion validity. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1998;26(4):257-68. [DOI:10.1023/A:1022602400621]
[13] Bellis TJ, Ferre JM. A multidimensional approach to the differential diagnosis of central auditory processing disorders in children. J Am Acad Audiol. 1999;10(6):319-28.
[14] Wilson WJ. Screening for central auditory processing disorder. In: Musiek FE, Chermak GD, editors. Handbook of central auditory processing disorder. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing, Inc.; 2014. p. 265-90. (Auditory neuroscience and diagnosis; vol 1)
[15] American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (Central) auditory processing disorders - The role of the audiologist. [Position Statement]. 2005. Available from: https://www.asha.org/policy/ps2005-00114/. [DOI:10.1044/policy.PS2005-00114]
[16] Ahmadi Z, Jarollahi F, Ahadi M, Hosseini F, Khamisabadi S. Screening of auditory processing disorder in children with learning disabilities using the Persian version of the auditory processing domains questionnaire. Aud Vestib Res. 2020;29(3):156-64. [DOI:10.18502/avr.v29i3.3848]
[17] Chermak GD, Musiek FE. Central auditory processing disorders: New perspectives. San Diego: Singular; 1997.
[18] Ebadi E, Jarollahi F, Tahaei AA, Ahadi M, Hosseini AF. Development and evaluation of the Persian version of the multiple auditory processing assessments. Aud Vestib Res. 2016;25(2):75-81.
Files
IssueVol 31 No 1 (2022) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/avr.v31i1.8130
Keywords
Auditory processing disorder screening language index attention index auditory processing domain questionnaire

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Jarollahi F, Pourbakht A, Jalaie S, Oruie M. Screening of Auditory Processing Disorders in School- Aged Children in Tehran, Iran Using the Auditory Processing Domain Questionnaire. Aud Vestib Res. 2021;31(1):17-22.