Research Article

Evaluating the effectiveness of dichotic training in the elderly adults: a single subject study

Abstract

Background and Aim: Elderly people usually show poor performance in dichotic listening tasks. In this condition, the left ear being often the weaker one shows a performance below the normal limits. Studies have shown the effectiveness of dichotic listening training in auditory and language processing for adults and children with neurological disorders. This study aimed to deve­lop a home-version of dichotic training and investigate its effectiveness in elderly adults.
Methods: Participants in this single-subject interventional study (AB design) were four elderly subjects (two males and two females) aged 65−75 years. The main inclusion criteria were dichotic listening deficit demonstrated by the dichotic digit test (DDT), no neurological or cognitive disorders, and normal hearing threshold. Dichotic listening training was performed with an informal home-version of dichotic interaural intensity difference (DIID) training program for seven weeks. DDT was performed seven consecutive weeks before (phase A) and after the intervention (phase B) at the end of each week.
Results: Data were analyzed by single-subject study statistics. Findings demonstrated an imp­rovement in DDT scores for the left ear and decrease in right ear advantage scores in all the elderly adults after DIID training program. It seems that this training program could remediate poor performance in dichotic listening tasks in elderly people.
Conclusion: The advantage of this method is that it can be easily done at home and is cost-effective. However, further studies are needed to approve the neuroplasticity and structural chan­ges in the brain after the DIID training program in this population.

1. Recanzone G. The effects of aging on auditory cortical function. Hear Res. 2018;366:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2018.05.013
2. Babkoff H, Fostick L. Age-related changes in auditory processing and speech perception: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Eur J Ageing. 2017;14(3):269-81. doi: 10.1007/s10433-017-0410-y
3. Sanchez ML, Nunes FB, Barros F, Ganança MM, Caovilla HH. Auditory processing assessment in older people with no report of hearing disability. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;74(6):896-902. doi: 10.1016/S1808-8694(15)30151-8
4. Hommet C, Mondon K, Berrut G, Gouyer Y, Isingrini M, Constans T, et al. Central auditory processing in aging: the dichotic listening paradigm. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(9):751-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-010-0097-7
5. Lavie L, Banai K, Attias J. Dichotic listening: a predictor of speech-in-noise perception in older hearing-impaired adults? Proceedings of the International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research: Auditory Plasticity- Listening With the Brain; 2013;4:357-64.
6. Janse E. Processing of fast speech by elderly listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;125(4):2361-73. doi: 10.1121/1.3082117
7. Martin JS, Jerger JF. Some effects of aging on central auditory processing. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005;42(4 Suppl 2):25-44. doi: 10.1682/jrrd.2004.12.0164
8. Gootjes L, Van Strien JW, Bouma A. Age effects in identifying and localizing dichotic stimuli: a corpus callosum deficit. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004;26(6):826-37. doi: 10.1080/13803390490509448
9. Chen X, Liang Y, Deng Y, Li J, Chen S, Wang C, et al. Age-associated reduction of asymmetry in human central auditory function: a 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Neural Plast. 2013;2013:735290. doi: 10.1155/2013/735290
10. Fischer ME, Cruickshanks KJ, Nondahl DM, Klein BEK, Klein R, Pankow JS, et al. Dichotic digits test performance across the ages: results from two large epidemiologic cohort studies. Ear Hear. 2017;38(3):314-20. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000386
11. Mustek FE, Baran JA, Pinheiro ML. Duration pattern recognition in normal subjects and patients with cerebral and cochlear lesions. Audiology. 1990;29(6):304-13. doi: 10.3109/00206099009072861
12. Musiek FE. The DIID: a new treatment for APD. Hearing J. 2004;57(7):50. doi: 10.1097/01.HJ.0000293049.80297.cd
13. Moncrieff DW, Wertz D. Auditory rehabilitation for interaural asymmetry: Preliminary evidence of improved dichotic listening performance following intensive training. Int J Audiol. 2008;47(2):84-97. doi: 10.1080/14992020701770835
14. McCullagh J, Palmer SB. The effects of auditory training on dichotic listening: a neurological case study. Hearing Balance Commun. 2017;15(1):30-7. doi: 10.1080/21695717.2016.1269453
15. Bronus K, El Refaie A, Pryce H. Auditory training and adult rehabilitation: a critical review of the evidence. Global Journal of Health Science. 2011;3(1):49-63. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v3n1p49
16. Krasny-Pacini A, Evans J. Single-case experimental designs to assess intervention effectiveness in rehabi¬litation: A practical guide. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2018;61(3):164-79. doi: 10.1016/j.rehab.2017.12.002
17. Mahdavi ME, Aghazadeh J, Tahaei SAA, Heiran F, Baghban AA. Persian randomized dichotic digits test: Development and dichotic listening performance in young adults. Aud Vestib Res. 2015;23(6):99-113.
18. Weihing J, Musiek FE. Dichotic interaural intensity difference (DIID) training. In: Chermak GD, Musiek FE, editors. Handbook of central auditory processing disorder. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing; 2014. p. 225-42. (Comprehensive Intervention; vol 2).
19. Nourbakhsh MR, Ottenbacher KJ. The statistical analysis of single-subject data: a comparative examination. Phys Ther. 1994;74(8):768-76. doi: 10.1093/ptj/74.8.768
20. Weihing J, Chermak GD, Musiek FE. Auditory auditory training for central auditory processing disorder. Semin Hear. 2015;36(4):199-215. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1564458
21. Musiek FE, Shinn J, Hare C. Plasticity, auditory training, and auditory processing disorders. Semin Hear. 2002;23(4):263-76.
22. Musiek FE, Weihing J. Perspectives on dichotic listening and the corpus callosum. Brain Cogn. 2011;76(2):225-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2011.03.011
23. Kimura D. Functional asymmetry of the brain in dichotic listening. Cortex. 1967;3(2):163-78. doi: 10.1016/S0010-9452(67)80010-8
24. Bellis TJ. Assessment and management of central auditory processing disorders in the educational setting: from science to practice. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing, Inc; 2011.
25. Gootjes L, Scheltens P, Van Strien JW, Bouma A. Sub¬cortical white matter pathology as a mediating factor for age-related decreased performance in dichotic listening. Neuropsychologia. 2007;45(10):2322-32. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.02.014
26. van der Knaap LJ, van der Ham IJM. How does the corpus callosum mediate interhemispheric transfer? a review. Behav Brain Res. 2011;223(1):211-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.04.018
27. Zatorre RJ, Fields RD, Johansen-Berg H. Plasticity in gray and white: neuroimaging changes in brain structure during learning. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15(4):528-36. doi: 10.1038/nn.3045
28. Lövdén M, Bodammer NC, Kühn S, Kaufmann J, Schütze H, Tempelmann C, et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age Neuropsychologia. 2010;48(13):3878-83. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.08.026
Files
IssueVol 30 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Published2021-03-13
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/avr.v30i2.6095
Keywords
Auditory rehabilitation dichotic training dichotic listening elderly single-subject study

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Shahidipour Z, Farahani S, Mohammadkhani G, Tavanai E, Rahbar N, Jalaie S. Evaluating the effectiveness of dichotic training in the elderly adults: a single subject study. Aud Vestib Res. 30(2):110-118.