The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing scale for children- validity of children’s responses to a Persian translation
Background and Aim: Spatial hearing plays an important role in listening in complex hearing situations, including contributing to localization, lateralization, spatial release from masking, distance estimation from a sound source, and perceiving a signal in noise. Questionnaires are useful tools for assessing spatial processing disorder in adults. Given the high prevalence of this disorder in children and that the extent of children’s ability in completing questionnaires is not clear, this study aimed to evaluate the response validity of children to the Persian translation of the child version of the Speech, Spatial and Quality of Hearing Scale (PSSQ-Ch).
Methods: The child version of the SSQ was translated into Persian and cross-culturally adapted. The final version was administered to 150 children (6 to 12 years of age) with normal hearing. The children’s response validity was evaluated qualitatively and the percentage of valid responses calculated for each of 7 age groups.
Results: Across the three sections, the percentage of valid responses for children under age 10 was minimum 44.4% and maximum 83.3%, and the mode was around 60%. There was no child in the under-10 age group who answered all questions validly. The response validity of children aged 10 or more was higher with a minimum of 93.3%, a maximum of 100% and mode of 100%.
Conclusion: Children ≥ 10 years can reliably respond to the PSSQ-Ch. The response validity of children below 10 years is low; therefore, this questionnaire cannot be used as a self-assessment questionnaire in children below age 10.
2. Glyde H, Hickson L, Cameron S, Dillon H. Problems hearing in noise in older adults: a review of spatial processing disorder. Trends Amplif. 2011;15(3):116-26. doi: 10.1177/1084713811424885
3. Cameron S, Dillon H, Newall P. Development and evaluation of the listening in spatialized noise test. Ear Hear. 2006;27(1):30-42. doi: 10.1097/01.aud.0000194510.57677.03
4. Cameron S, Dillon H, Glyde H, Kanthan S, Kania A. Prevalence and remediation of spatial processing disorder (SPD) in Indigenous children in regional Australia. Int J Audiol. 2014;53(5):326-35. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2013.871388
5. Cameron S, Glyde H, Dillon H. Efficacy of the LiSN & Learn auditory training software: randomized blinded controlled study. Audiol Res. 2012;18;2(1):e15. doi: 10.4081/audiores.2012.e15
6. Cameron S, Glyde H, Dillon H. Listening in Spatialized Noise—Sentences Test (LiSN-S): normative and retest reliability data for adolescents and adults up to 60 years of age. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22(10):697-709. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.22.10.7
7. Chermak GD, Bellis TJ, Musiek FE. Neurobiology, cog¬nitive science, and intervention. In: Chermak GD, Musiek FE, editors. Central auditory processing disorders: com¬prehensive intervention. San Diego: Plural Publishing, Inc; 2014. p. 3-38.
8. Van Esch TE, Lutman ME, Vormann M, Lyzenga J, Hällgren M, Larsby B, et al. Relations between psychophysical measures of spatial hearing and self-reported spatial-hearing abilities. Int J Audiol. 2015;54(3):182-9. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2014.953216
9. Gatehouse S, Noble W. The speech, spatial and qualities of hearing scale (SSQ). Int J Audiol. 2004;43(2):85-99. 10.1080/14992020400050014
10. Perreau AE, Spejcher B, Ou H, Tyler R. The spatial hearing questionnaire: data from individuals with normal hearing. Am J Audiol. 2014;23(2):173-81. doi: 10.1044/2014_AJA-13-0049
11. Galvin KL, Noble W. Adaptation of the speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing scale for use with children, parents, and teachers. Cochlear Implants Int. 2013;14(3):135-41. doi: 10.1179/1754762812Y.0000000014
12. Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000;25(24):3186-91. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014
13. Lotfi Y, Moosavi A, Abdollahi FZ, Bakhshi E, Sadjedi H. Effects of an auditory lateralization training in children suspected to central auditory processing disorder. J Audiol Otol. 2016;20(2):102-8. doi: 10.7874/jao.2016.20.2.102
14. Ching TYC, Hou SYL, Zhang VW. Measuring outcomes of infants and children with hearing loss. In: Tharpe AM, Seewald R, editors. Comprehensive handbook of pediatric audiology. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing; 2016. p. 713-38.
15. Johnson CE, Danhauer JL. Handbook of outcomes mea¬surement in audiology. Clifton Park: Delmar Learning; 2002.
16. Kiessling J, Grugel L, Meister H, Meis M. [German translations of questionnaires SADL, ECHO and SSQ and their evaluation]. Zeitschrift fur Audiologie. 2011;50:6-16. German.
17. Demeester K, Topsakal V, Hendrickx JJ, Fransen E, van Laer L, Van Camp G, et al. Hearing disability measured by the speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing scale in clinically normal-hearing and hearing-impaired middle-aged persons, and disability screening by means of a reduced SSQ (the SSQ5). Ear Hear. 2012;33(5):615-6. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e31824e0ba7
18. Banh J, Singh G, Pichora-Fuller MK. Age affects responses on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) by adults with minimal audiometric loss. J Am Acad Audiol. 2012;23(2):81-91. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.23.2.2
19. Agus TR, Akeroyd MA, Noble W, Bhullar N. An analysis of the masking of speech by competing speech using self-report data. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;125(1):23-6. doi: 10.1121/1.3025915
20. Leppänen U, Aunola K, Nurmi JE. Beginning readers' reading performance and reading habits. J Res Read. 2005;28(4):383-99. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2005.00281.x
21. Eskoorochi R, Haji Zeinolabedini M, Nozar S. A study of per capita reading measurement parameters and a framework presentation for its measurement in Iran. Research on Information Science and Public Libraries. 2012;18(1):67-88.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.