Motor development in deaf children based on Gallahue's model: a review study

  • Parvin Veiskarami ORCID Department of Psychology, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran
  • Mehdi Roozbahani ORCID Mail Department of Motor Behavior, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran
Keywords:
Motor development; deaf children; fundamental motor skill; Gallahoe's motor development perspective

Abstract

Background and Aim: As deaf children grow up, they face difficulties that can affect their physical, emotional, motor, and cognitive development. This study reviews the recent studies conducted on motor development of deaf children based on Gallahue's model.
Recent Findings: Few studies have been conducted on deaf children's motor development stages; reflexive, rhythmic, rudimentary, and specialized movement. However, many studies investigated the fundamental movement stage with an emphasis on balance. They mostly reported the deaf children’s delay in developing gait velocity (during walking), postural control, static balance, dynamic balance, spatial-temporal coordination, gross motor skills, fine motor skills, and motor skills learning, compared with their healthy peers.
Conclusion: Delay in motor development in deaf children is not necessarily the result of deafness or vestibular problems, but individual, environmental, and exercise factors are also involved. Providing appropriate educational opportunities for these children, training specia­lized teachers and parents, and holding training courses for hearing specialists can help promote motor development in these children.

References

1. Payne VG, Isaacs LD. Human motor development a lifespan approach. Khalaji H, Ashtari MR, Kashani V, Heydarian S, Mokabarian M, translators. 8th ed. Tehran: Aeezh; 2014.
2. Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC, Goodway JD. Understanding motor development. Hemayettalab R, Movahedi AR, Farsi AR, Foladian J, translators. 6th ed. Tehran: Elmoharekat; 2019.
3. Masuda T, Kaga K. Relationship between acquisition of motor function and vestibular function in children with bilateral severe hearing loss. Acta Otolaryngol. 2014;134(7):672-8. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2014.890290
4. Jafarnezhadgero AA, Shad MM, Majlesi M, Granacher U. A comparison of running kinetics in children with and without genu varus: A cross sectional study. PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0185057. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185057
5. Melo RS, Marinho SEDS, Freire MEA, Souza RA, Damasceno HAM, Raposo MCF. Static and dynamic balance of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2017;15(3):262-8. doi: 10.1590/S1679-45082017AO3976
6. Suarez H, Alonso R, Arocena S, Ferreira E, Roman CS, Suarez A, et al. Sensorimotor interaction in deaf children. Relationship between gait performance and hearing input during childhood assessed in pre-lingual cochlear implant users. Acta Otolaryngol. 2017;137(4):346-51. doi: 10.1080/00016489.2016.1247496
7. Hartman E, Houwen S, Visscher C. Motor skill performance and sports participation in deaf elementary school children. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2011;28(2):132-45.
8. Dair J, Ellis MK, Lieberman LJ. Prevalence of overweight among deaf children. Am Ann Deaf. 2006;151(3):318-26. doi: 10.1353/aad.2006.0034
9. Al-Rahamneh H, Dababseh M, Eston R. Fitness level of deaf students compared to hearing students in Jordan. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2013;13(4):528-32. doi: 10.7752/jpes.2013.04083
10. Rajendran V, Roy FG. An overview of motor skill performance and balance in hearing impaired children. Ital J Pediatr. 2011;37:33. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-37-33
11. Veiskarami P, Roozbahani M. [Investigate the effectiveness of auditory rehabilitation on the stress, anxiety, depression and life expectancy of parents of deaf children]. Yafte. 2018;20(2):11-9. Persian.
12. Crowe TK, Horak FB. Motor proficiency associated with vestibular deficits in children with hearing impairments. Phys Ther. 1988;68(10):1493-9.
13. Schwab B, Kontorinis G. Influencing factors on the vestibular function of deaf children and adolescents - evaluation by means of dynamic posturography. Open Otorhinolaryngol J. 2011;5:1-9.
14. Butterfield SA, Mars Hans V, Chase J. Fundamental motor skill performances of deaf and hearing children ages 3 to 8. Clinical Kinesiology. 1993;47(1):2-6.
15. Dummer GM, Haubenstricker JL, Stewart DA. Motor skill performances of children who are deaf. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 1996;13(4):400-14. doi: 10.1123/apaq.13.4.400
16. Gkouvatzi AN, Mantis K, Kambas A. Comparative study of motor performance of deaf and hard of hearing students in reaction time, visual-motor control and upper limb speed and dexterity abilities. Int J Spec Educ. 2010;25(2):15-25.
17. Lieberman LJ, Volding L, Winnick JP. Comparing motor development of deaf children of deaf parents and deaf children of hearing parents. Am Ann Deaf. 2004;149(3):281-9. doi: 10.1353/aad.2004.0027
18. Motasaddi Zarandy M, Khorsandi MT, Rezazadeh N, Yazdani N, Mokhtarinejad F, Bayat A, et al. [Vestibular dysfunctions in cochlear implant patients; A vestibular evoked myogenic potential study]. Audiol. 2010;19(2):18-24. Persian.
19. Magnusson M, Petersen H, Harris S, Johansson R. Postural control and vestibulospinal function in patients selected for cochlear implantation. Br J Audiol. 1995;29(4):231-6.
20. Vitkovic J, Le C, Lee SL, Clark RA. The contribution of hearing and hearing loss to balance control. Audiol Neurootol. 2016;21(4):195-202. doi: 10.1159/000445100
21. Zur O, Ben-Rubi Shimron H, Leisman G, Carmeli E. Balance versus hearing after cochlear implant in an adult. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017. pii: bcr-2017-220391. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2017-220391
22. De Kegel A, Maes L, Van Waelvelde H, Dhooge I. Examining the impact of cochlear implantation on the early gross motor development of children with a hearing loss. Ear Hear. 2015;36(3):e113-21. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000133
23. Vidranski T, Farkaš D. Motor skills in hearing impaired children with or without cochlear implant--a systematic review. Coll Antropol. 2015;39 Suppl 1:173-9.
24. Savelsbergh GJ, Netelenbos JB, Whiting HT. Auditory perception and the control of spatially coordinated action of deaf and hearing children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1991;32(3):489-500. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1991.tb00326.x
25. Lévesque J, Théoret H, Champoux F. Reduced procedural motor learning in deaf individuals. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:343. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00343
26. Horn DL, Fagan MK, Dillon CM, Pisoni DB, Miyamoto RT. Visual-motor integration skills of prelingually deaf children: implications for pediatric cochlear implantation. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(11):2017-25. doi: 10.1097/MLG.0b013e3181271401
27. Nadertabar M, Sharifi Daramadi P, Pezeshk S, Farrokhi N. [The influence of computer games on visual-motor skills in deaf students]. MEJDS. 2017;7:101. Persian.
28. Newell KM. Constraints on the development of coordination. In: Wade MG, Whiting HTA, editors. Motor development in children: aspects of coordination and control. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht; 1986. p. 341-60.
29. Akhast A, Riyahi A. [Remaining of initial reflection and movement disorders in children]. Journal of Exceptional Education. 2009;92:3-11. Persian.
30. Farsi A, Entezari Z. [Human motor development tests]. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University; 2018. Persian.
31. Jernice TSY, Nonis K. The motor skills of adolescents with hearing impairment in a regular physical education environment. Int J Spec Educ. 2017;32(3):596-607.
32. Farzaneh Hessari A, Daneshmandi H, Mahdavi S. [The effect of 8 weeks of core stabilization training program on balance in hearing impaired students]. Juornal of Sport Medicine. 2012;3(2):67-83. Persian.
33. Mazaheryazdi M, Moossavi A, Sarrafzadah J, Talebian S, Jalaie S. Study of the effects of hearing on static and dynamic postural function in children using cochlear implants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;100:18-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.06.002
34. Jernice TSY, Nonis KP, Yi CJ. The balance control of children with and without hearing impairment in singapore--a case study. Int J Spec Educ. 2011;26(3):260-75.
35. Amirsalari S, Yousefi J, Radfar S, Saburi A, Tavallaie SA, Hosseini MJ, et al. Cochlear implant outcomes in children with motor developmental delay. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(1):100-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.10.011
36. Shojaei R, Hasanzadeh S, Farahbod M. [Visual- motor skills in school-aged students with and without profound hearing loss]. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2013;13(3):23-6. Persian.
37. Vali-Zadeh A, Rezazadeh F, A'ali S, Mostafa-Zadeh A. [Comparison of static balance among blind, deaf and normal children in different conditions]. Archives of rehabilitation. 2014;14(4):106-12. Persian.
38. Gheysen F, Loots G, Van Waelvelde H. Motor development of deaf children with and without cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2008;13(2):215-24. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enm053
39. Shah J, Rao K, Malawade M, Khatri S. Effect of motor control program in improving gross motor function and postural control in children with sensorineural hearing loss-a pilot study. Pediat Ther. 2013;3:1-4. doi: 10.4172/2161-0665.1000141
40. Rashidi Z, Rasouli F, Mohammadi H, Heidari A. [Comparison of fine motor function between children with profound hearing loss and those with normal hearing]. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. 2017;8(3):417-25. Persian. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.jnkums.8.3.417
41. Bernard-Demanze L, Léonard J, Dumitrescu M, Meller R, Magnan J, Lacour M. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression. Front Integr Neurosci. 2014;7:111. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00111
42. Leigh G, Ching TY, Crowe K, Cupples L, Marnane V, Seeto M. Factors affecting psychosocial and motor development in 3-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2015;20(4):331-42. doi: 10.1093/deafed/env028
43. Majlesi M, Farahpour N, Azadian E, Amini M. The effect of interventional proprioceptive training on static balance and gait in deaf children. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35(12):3562-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.09.001
44. Seyedi M, Seidi F, Rahimi A, Minoonejad H. An investigation of the efficiency of sensory systems involved in postural control in deaf athletes and non-athletes. Juornal of Sport Medicine. 2015;7(1):111-27. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4785.0328
45. Ahmadpour A, Aslankhani MA, Ashayeri H, Jafari Z. [Effects of a selected rhythmic exercise program on the balance control in hearing-impaired children with vestibular dysfunction]. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2015;7(21):47-64. Persian.
46. Khodashenas E, Moradi H, Asadi Ghalen M, Heidari E, Shams A, Enayati ghasbeh A, et al. [The effect of selective training program on the static and dynamic balance of deaf children]. Journal of Mashhad Univer¬sity of Medical Sciences. 2017;60(1):383-91. Persian.
47. Ebrahimi AA, Jamshidi AA, Movallali G, Rahgozar M, Haghgoo HA. The effect of vestibular rehabilitation therapy program on sensory organization of deaf children with bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Acta Med Iran. 2017;55(11):683-9.
48. Taheri M, Irandoust K, Norasteh AA, Shavikloo J. [The effect of combined core stability and neuromuscular training on postural control in students with congenital hearing loss]. J Res Rehabil Sci. 2017;13(2):80-6. Persian. doi: 10.22122/jrrs.v13i2.2846
49. Zarei H, Norasteh AA, Hajihosseini E. [The effect of a combined training program on physical fitness factors among deaf boy students: a randomized clinical trial study]. J Res Rehabil Sci. 2017;13(3):153-61. Persian. doi: 10.22122/jrrs.v13i3.2914
50. Peñeñory VM, Manresa-Yee C, Riquelme I, Collazos CA, Fardoun HM. Scoping review of systems to train psychomotor skills in hearing impaired children. Sensors (Basel). 2018;18(8). pii: E2546. doi: 10.3390/s18082546
51. Ahmadpour A, Aslankhani MA, Ashayeri H, Jafari Z. [The comparison of balance performance among children with cochlear implantation, post-aural aid and normal children]. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. 2014;18(8):479-90. Persian.
52. Ebrahimi AA, Movallali G, Jamshidi AA, Haghgoo HA, Rahgozar M. [Balance performance of deaf children with and without cochlear implants]. Acta Med Iran. 2016;54(11):737-42. Persian.
53. An M, Yi C, Jeon H, Park S. Age-related changes of single-limb standing balance in children with and with¬out deafness. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(11):1539-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.07.020
54. Mortazavi SS, Mortazavi Z, Mirbagheri SS. Evaluation of the relationship between fine motor skills and demographic indices in students with hearing impairment. Specific physical therapy Journal. 2016;6(2):93-102. doi; 10.18869/nrip.ptj.6.2.93
55. Zawi K, Denise Koh Choon L, Rozlina Tan A. Gross motor development of Malaysian hearing impaired male pre- and early school children. International Education Studies. 2014;7(13):242-52.
56. Livingstone N, McPhillips M. Motor skill deficits in children with partial hearing. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011;53(9):836-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04001.x
57. Metgud DC, Topkar P. Balance and agility testing in normal and hearing-impaired children: A Case–Control study. Indian J Phys Ther Res. 2019;1(1):42-6.
Published
2020-01-19
How to Cite
1.
Veiskarami P, Roozbahani M. Motor development in deaf children based on Gallahue’s model: a review study. Aud Vestib Res. 29(1):10-25.
Section
Review Article(s)