Research Article

Investigating the effect of extended high-frequency hearing loss on duration pattern sequence test


Background and Aim: Temporal processing is affected in people exposed to occupational noise. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the temporal processing of people exposed to occupational noise of more than 85 dB A but have not experienced clinically significant changes at hearing thresholds at conventional frequencies.
Methods: A comparison between groups were designed using individuals exposed to occupational noise (n = 15 as the case group) and non-exposed individuals (n = 16 as the control gro­up). Two groups were age-matched (p < 0.05). The extended high-frequency audiometric thre­sholds and temporal processing system were evaluated through a duration pattern sequence test. Finally, the correlation between the extended high-frequency hearing thresholds and the duration pattern test scores was investigated.
Results: The case group had significantly higher hearing thresholds than the control group at 14, 15, and 16 kHz (p < 0.05). Although in other frequencies, the mean hearing thresholds in the case group was higher than the control group, the difference was not significant. Also, the case group had significantly lower duration pattern sequence scores than the control group in the right (p = 0.02) and the left ears (p = 0.03). There was no correlation between extended high-frequency hearing thresholds and duration pattern sequence test scores.
Conclusion: In people exposed to occupational noise, both extended high-frequency thresholds and temporal processing in lower frequency ran­ges (with normal hearing thresholds) are interrupted.

1. Kurmis AP, Apps SA. Occupationally-acquired noise-induced hearing loss: a senseless workplace hazard. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(2):127-36. doi: 10.2478/v10001-007-0016-2
2. Dunn DE, Robinowitz PM. Noise. In: Rosenstock L, Cullen MR, Brodkin CA, Redlich CA. editors. Textbook of clinical occupational and environmental medicine. 2nd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. p. 893-902.
3. Ryan AF, Kujawa SG, Hammill T, Le Prell C, Kil J. Temporary and permanent noise-induced threshold shifts: a review of basic and clinical observations. Otol Neurotol. 2016;37(8):e271-5. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001071
4. Delphi M, Jarollahi F, Tahaie SA, Modarresi Y, Kamali MJBA-TUoMS. [Evaluating Mosleh monosylabic word lists in adults with noise-induced hearing loss]. Audiol. 2013;22(3):14-22. Persian.
5. Mehrparvar AH, Mirmohammadi SJ, Ghoreyshi A, Mollasadeghi A, Loukzadeh Z. High-frequency audiometry: A means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss. Noise Health. 2011;13(55);402-6. doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.90295
6. Türkkahraman S, Gök U, Karlidağ T, Keleş E, Oztürk A. [Findings of standard and high-frequency audiometry in workers exposed to occupational noise for long durations]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2003;¬10(4):137-42. Turkish.
7. Kumar UA, Ameenudin S, Sangamanatha AV. Tem¬poral and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational. Noise Health. 2012;14(58):100-5. doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.97252
8. Tajik S, Adel Ghahraman M, Tahaie AA, Hajiabolhassan F, Jalilvand Karimi L, Jalaie S. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia. Aud Vestib Res. 2012;21(4):76-83.
9. Zamyslowska-Szmytke E, Fuente A, Niebudek-Bogusz E, Sliwinska-Kowalska M. Temporal processing dis¬order associated with styrene exposure. Audiol Neurootol. 2009;14(5):296-302. doi: 10.1159/000212108
10. Musiek FE, Chermak GD. editors. Handbook of central auditory processing disorder, volume I: Auditory neuroscience and diagnosis. 2nd ed. San Diego. Plural Publishing Inc; 2013.
11. Miranda ES, Pereira LD, Bommarito S, Silva TM. Auditory processing evaluation using nonverbal sounds in subjects with Parkinson's disease. Rev. Bras. Otorrinolaringol. 2004;70(4):534-9. doi: 10.1590/S0034-72992004000400015
12. Moore BC. Perceptual consequences of cochlear hearing loss and their implications for the design of hearing aids. Ear Hear. 1996;17(2):133-61.
13. Simon HJ, Yund EW. Frequency discrimination in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss. Ear Hear. 1993;14(3):190-201.
14. Schroder AC, Viemeister NF, Nelson DA. Intensity discrimination in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. J Acoust Soc Am. 1994;96(5 Pt 1):2683-93.
15. Feng Y, Yin S, Kiefte M, Wang J. Temporal resolution in regions of normal hearing and speech perception in noise for adults with sloping high-frequency hearing loss. Ear Hear. 2010;31(1):115-25. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181bb69be
16. Kumar AU, A V S. Temporal processing abilities across different age groups. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22(1):5-12. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.22.1.2
17. Cruickshanks KJ, Tweed TS, Wiley TL, Klein BE, Klein R, Chappell R, et al. The 5-year incidence and progression of hearing loss: the epidemiology of hearing loss study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129(10):1041-6. doi: 10.1001/archotol.129.10.1041
18. Musiek FE, Baran JA, Pinheiro ML. Duration pattern recognition in normal subjects and patients with cerebral and cochlear lesions. Audiology. 1990;29(6):304-13.
19. Balatsouras DG, Homsioglou E, Danielidis V. Extended high-frequency audiometry in patients with acoustic trauma. Clin Otolaryngol. 2005;30(3):249-54.
20. McGill TJ, Schuknecht HF. Human cochlear changes in noise induced hearing loss. Laryngoscope. 1976;86(9):1293-1302. doi: 10.1288/00005537-197609000-00001
21. Mustek FE, Baran JA, Pinheiro ML. Duration pattern recognition in normal subjects and patients with cerebral and cochlear lesions. Audiology. 1990;29(6):304-13.
22. Somma G, Pietroiusti A, Magrini A, Coppeta L, Ancona C, Gardi S, et al. Extended high-frequency audiometry and noise induced hearing loss in cement workers. Am J Ind Med. 2008;51(6):452-62. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20580
23. Singh R, Saxena R, Varshney SA. Early detection of noise induced hearing loss by using ultra high frequency audiometry. Int J Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;10(2):1-5.
24. Lopes AC, Otubo KA, Basso TC, Marinelli E, Lauris JRPJAio. Occupational hearing loss: tonal audiometry x high frequencies audiometry. Intl. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;13(3):293-9.
25. Porto MA, Gahyva DL, Lauris JR, Lopes AC. [Audiometric evaluation in extended high frequencies of individuals exposed to occupational noise]. Pro Fono. 2004;16(3):237-50. Portuguese.
26. Rocha RL, Atherino CC, Frota SM. High-frequency audiometry in normal hearing military firemen exposed to noise. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;76(6):687-94.
27. Wang Y, Yang B, Li Y, Hou L, Hu Y, Han Y. [Application of extended high frequency audiometry in the early diagnosis of noise--induced hearing loss]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2000;35(1):26-8. Chinese
28. Hope AJ, Luxon LM, Bamiou DE. Effects of chronic noise exposure on speech-in-noise perception in the presence of normal audiometry. J Laryngol Otol. 2013;127(3):233-8. doi: 10.1017/S002221511200299X
29. Kujawa SG, Liberman MC. Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci. 2009;29(45):14077-85. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2845-09.2009
30. Johnson KL, Nicol TG, Zecker SG, Kraus N. Auditory brainstem correlates of perceptual timing deficits. J Cogn Neurosci. 2007;19(3):376-85. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2007.19.3.376
31. Willott JF, Lu SM. Noise-induced hearing loss can alter neural coding and increase excitability in the central nervous system. Science. 1982;216(4552):1331-4.
32. Mustek FE, Pinheiro ML. Frequency patterns in cochlear, brainstem, and cerebral lesions: reconnaissance mélodique dans les lésions cochléaires, bulbaires et corticales. Audiology. 1987;26(2):79-88. doi: 10.3109/00206098709078409
33. Gold SM, Dziobek I, Sweat V, Tirsi A, Rogers K, Bruehl H, et al. Hippocampal damage and memory impairments as possible early brain complications of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2007;50(4):711-9. doi: 10.1007/s00125-007-0602-7
34. Seraji H, Mohamadkhani G, Nasli Esfahani E, Jalaei S. [Evaluation of temporal processing in patients with type1 diabetes in duration pattern sequence test]. Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation. 2018;7(3):17-25. Persian. doi: 10.22038/jpsr.2018.27557.1720
35. Salame P, Baddeley. Language. Disruption of short-term memory by unattended speech: Implications for the structure of working memory. 1982;21(2):150-64. doi: 10.1016/S0022-5371(82)90521-7
36. Kemp DT. Towards a model for the origin of cochlear echoes. Hear Res. 1980;2(3-4):533-48.
IssueVol 28 No 3 (2019) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Occupational noise; extended high-frequency hearing; duration pattern sequence test; temporal processing

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Farahani A, Farahani S, Rouhbakhsh N, Zamiri Abdollahi F, Bolandi M. Investigating the effect of extended high-frequency hearing loss on duration pattern sequence test. Aud Vestib Res. 28(3):190-197.