A child with (central) auditory processing disorder: a case report
Background: Subjects with (central) auditory processing disorder (C)APD may manifest a range of complaints including difficulty in speech perception in noise, following directions, and discrimination of similar speech sounds. Other disorders may also have the same behavioral manifestations.
The Case: Here we present an 8-year-old boy who was misdiagnosed and mismanaged as a child with learning disability. His speech, language and cognition problems at initial evaluation included semantic problem, a short length of speech, phonological sound disorder, and attention disorder. He showed abnormality in the dichotic digits test with free recall approach and monaural selective auditory attention test. Based on his performance and test results, he was suffering from (C)APD especially in dichotic listening and speech perception in competition. It was suggested that binaural hearing training with differential interaural intensity, informal localization training including localization clock, and auditory training in noise be added to his classic auditory training program.
Conclusion: Studying this subject was important because (C)APD diagnosis needs a team approach. Evidently, the parents, teacher and speech-language pathologist (SLP) did not seek a central auditory processing evaluations early enough but some of his behaviors could potentially be a red flag for (C)APD and could guide SLPs to refer him for central auditory testing. As we may not be able to evaluate central auditory processing in the early childhood, identifying the possible (C)APD signs by a SLP may help them to plan a more suitable program even before reaching a definite diagnosis.
2. Pavlick ML, Zalewski TR, González JE, Duncan MKW. A (C)APD screening instrument for the buffalo model diagnostic test battery. J Educ Audiol. 2010;16:4-13.
3. Bellis TJ. Assessment and management of central auditory processing disorders in the educational setting: from science to practice. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing; 2011.
4. Delecrode CR, Cardoso ACV, Frizzo ACF, Guida HL. Pitch pattern sequence and duration pattern tests in Brazil: literature review. Rev CEFAC. 2014;16(1):283-92. doi: 10.1590/1982-021620143912
5. Geffner D. Central auditory processing disorders: definition, description, and behaviors. In: Geffner D, Ross-Swain D, editors. Auditory processing disorders: assessment, management, and treatment. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing Inc.; 2013. p. 59-90.
6. Bellis TJ, Beck BR. Central auditory processing in clinical practice. 2000; Available at: https://www.audiologyonline.com/articles/central-auditory-processing-in-clinical-1281. August 7, 2000.
7. Genovese E, Vallarino M, Guarnaccia MC, Monzani D. Diagnosis of auditory processing disorders. In: Mercuri E, Fedrizzi E, Cioni G, editors. New Diagnostic and therapeutic tools in child neurology. 1st ed. ed. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext; 2011. p. 83-90.
8. Bellis TJ. Understanding auditory processing disorders in children. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 2004. Available from http//www asha org/public/hearing/disorders/understand-apd-hild htm.
9. Anjidani Z, Moosavi A, Lotfi Y. Evaluation of effects of dichotic interaural intensity difference (DIID) training on dichotic integration scores in learning disordered children aged 7-12. [Dissertation]. Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2015.
10. DeBonis DA, Moncrieff D. Auditory processing disorders: an update for speech-language pathologists. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2008;17(1):4-18. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2008/002)
11. Iliadou V, Bamiou DE, Kaprinis S, Kandylis D, Kaprinis G. Auditory processing disorders in children suspected of learning disabilities--a need for screening? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(7):1029-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.04.004
12. Domitz DM, Schow RL. A new CAPD battery--multiple auditory processing assessment: factor analysis and comparisons with SCAN. Am J Audiol. 2000;9(2):101-11. doi: 10.1044/1059-0889(2000/012)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.