Research Article

Evaluation of phonological awareness training on reading improvement and skills


Background and Aim: Reading is not only a fundamental skill in learning but also an important channel in dealing with the outside world. However, hearing impairment affects linguistic growth, including speaking and reading; development of understanding; and academic achi­evement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phonological awareness training on improving phonological reading and awareness in primary school children with hea­ring impairment.
Methods: The present study has a quasi-experimental design. The research was conducted as pretest, intervention and posttest. A total of 20 children with moderate to severe hearing loss were enrolled in the experimental group and 20 subjects in another group as the control. Reading and dyslexia test (NEMA) was used to assess reading improvement and phonological awareness was assessed by the phonological awareness questionnaire. The data normality was checked by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate non-parametric data.
Results: Based on the results, after teaching the phonological awareness strategies to the experi­mental group, their reading and phonological awareness scores increased significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). Also the results show higher phonological awareness scores in girls.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that improvement of phonological awareness in children with hearing loss can improve and resolve their reading performance and problems. 

1. Gathercole SE, Pickering SJ, Knight C, Stegmann Z. Working memory skills and educational attainment: evidence from national curriculum assessments at 7 and 14 years of age. Appl Cogn Psychol. 2004;18(1):1-16. doi: 10.1002/acp.934
2. Snowling M, Nation K, Moxham P, Gallagher A, Frith U. Phonological processing skills of dyslexic students in higher education: a preliminary report. J Res Read. 1997;20(1):31-41. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.00018
3. Rendall AR, Tarkar A, Contreras-Mora HM, LoTurco JJ, Fitch RH. Deficits in learning and memory in mice with a mutation of the candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene Dyx1c1. Brain Lang. 2017;172:30-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2015.04.008
4. Hutzler F, Kronbichler M, Jacobs AM, Wimmer H. Perhaps correlational but not causal: no effect of dyslexic readers' magnocellular system on their eye movements during reading. Neuropsychologia. 2006;44(4):637-48. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.06.006
5. Ramus F, Rosen S, Dakin SC, Day BL, Castellote JM, White S, et al. Theories of developmental dyslexia: insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain. 2003;126(Pt 4):841-65.
6. Seki A, Kassai K, Uchiyama H, Koeda T. Reading ability and phonological awareness in Japanese children with dyslexia. Brain Dev. 2008;30(3):179-88. dio: 10.1016/j.braindev.2007.07.006
7. Leikin M, Zur Hagit E. Morphological processing in adult dyslexia. J Psycholinguist Res. 2006;35(6):471-90. doi:10.1007/s10936-006-9025-8
8. Di Filippo G, Brizzolara D, Chilosi A, De Luca M, Judica A, Pecini C, et al. Naming speed and visual search deficits in readers with disabilities: evidence from an orthographically regular language (Italian). Dev Neuropsychol. 2006;30(3):885-904. doi: 10.1207/s15326942dn3003_7
9. Soleimani Z. [Phonological awareness and effect of reading in 5.5 and 6.5 years old Persian children]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2000;1(2):27-35. Persian.
10. Habibi-Kaleybar R, Farid A, Shaban Besim F. [The Comparison of the effect of mental rotation and phonological awareness training on accuracy, speed and comprehension in students with dyslexia in city of Tabriz]. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2017;20(2): 10-21. Persian.
11. Goswami U. Phonological skills and learning to read. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993;682(1):296-311. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb22977.x
12. Briscoe J, Bishop DV, Norbury CF. Phonological processing, language, and literacy: a comparison of children with mild to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss and those with specific language impairment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2001;42(3):329-40. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00726
13. Soleymani Z, Kazemi Dastjerdi M. [Valldi1y and reliabiu1y of the phonological awareness test]. Journal of Psychology. 2005;9(1):82-100. Persian.
14. Hosaini M, Moradi A, Kormi Nouri R, Hassani J, Parhoon H. [Reliability and validity of reading and dyslexia test (NEMA)]. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2016;18(1):22-34. Persian.
15. Xu M, Yang J, Siok WT, Tan LH. Atypical lateralization of phonological working memory in developmental dyslexia. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2015;33:67-77. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2014.07.004
16. Lovett MW, Borden SL, DeLuca T, Lacerenza L, Benson NJ, Brackstone D. Treating the core deficits of developmental dyslexia: Evidence of transfer of learning after phonologically- and strategy-based reading training programs. Dev Psychol. 1994;30(6):805-22.
17. Torgesen JK, Morgan ST, Davis C. Effects of two types of phonological awareness training on word learning in kindergarten children. J Educ Psychol. 1992;84(3):364-70. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.364
18. Nation K, Snowling MJ. Beyond phonological skills: broader language skills contribute to the development of reading. Journal of research in reading. 2004;27(4):342-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2004.00238.x
19. Leinonen S, Müller K, Leppänen PHT, Aro M, Ahonen T, Lyytinen H. Heterogeneity in adult dyslexic readers: Relating processing skills to the speed and accuracy of oral text reading. Read Writ. 2001;14(3-4):265-96. doi: 10.1023/A:101111762
20. Yeung SS, Siegel LS, Chan CK. Effects of a phono¬logical awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children. Read Writ. 2013;26(5):681-704. doi: 10.1007/s11145-012-9383-6
21. Moura SR, Mezzomo CL, Cielo CA. Phonemic awareness stimulation and its effects regarding the variable gender. Pro Fono. 2009;21(1):51-6.
22. Chipere N. Sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability. Language Awareness. 2014;23(3):275-89. doi: 10.1080/09658416.2013.774007
Lundberg I, Larsman P, Strid A. Development of phonological awareness during the preschool year: the influence of gender and socio-economic status. Read Writ. 2012;25(2):305-20. doi: 10.1007/s11145-010-9269-4
IssueVol 27 No 4 (2018) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Phonological awareness; reading skills; hearing impairment

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Saeidmanesh M, Hajavi H, Moradi V. Evaluation of phonological awareness training on reading improvement and skills. Aud Vestib Res. 2018;27(4):208-214.