The prevalence of hearing loss in the first high school students in Hamadan, western Iran
Background and Aim: Because children learn to communicate by hearing sounds, a hearing loss (HL) will deteriorate their cognitive and speaking abilities and language learning. Early detection and intervention are important factors in the successful treatment of HL in children. HL is divided into two main groups: conductive hearing loss (CHL) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL); the former is more prevalent in children and many of its causes are easy to detect and treat.
Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 1,446 children, aged 11-13 years, entering first-degree high school in the school year 2016, were randomly selected from two schools in Hamadan, western Iran, and their audiograms were studied. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS 16.
Results: Out of the 1,446 high school children examined in this study, 18 children (1.2%) suffered from HL (44.5% female and 55.5% male), 33% from CHL, and 67% from SNHL. Besides, 89% suffered from bilateral HL and 11% from unilateral HL.
Conclusion: Considering the prevalence of HL, especially SNHL, in this study in first-degree high school students of Hamadan, it seems vital to raise public awareness and early screening of ear diseases, which can lead to the detection and treatment in most cases.
2. Global estimates on prevalence of hearing loss. [Intrnet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. Available from: http://www.who.int/pbd/deafness/estimates [accessed 25 November 2013].
3. Mehra S, Eavey RD, Keamy DG Jr. The epidemiology of hearing impairment in the United States: newborns, children, and adolescents. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140(4):461-72. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2008.12.022
4. Borg E, Edquist G, Reinholdson AC, Risberg A, McAllister B. Speech and language development in a population of Swedish hearing-impaired pre-school children, a cross-sectional study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71(7):1061-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2007.03.016
5. Al-Rowaily MA, AlFayez AI, AlJomiey MS, AlBadr AM, Abolfotouh MA. Hearing impairments among Saudi preschool children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(11):1674-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.08.004
6. Khairi Md Daud M, Noor RM, Rahman NA, Sidek DS, Mohamad A. The effect of mild hearing loss on academic performance in primary school children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74(1):67-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.10.013
7. Lewis DE, Valente DL, Spalding JL. Effect of minimal/mild hearing loss on children's speech understanding in a simulated classroom. Ear Hear. 2015;36(1):136-44. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000092
8. Vohr BR, Topol D, Watson V, St Pierre L, Tucker R. The importance of language in the home for school-age children with permanent hearing loss. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103(1):62-9. doi: 10.1111/apa.12441
9. Lieu JE, Tye-Murray N, Fu Q. Longitudinal study of children with unilateral hearing loss. Laryngoscope. 2012;122(9):2088-95. doi: 10.1002/lary.23454
10. Lieu JEC. Variations in the prevalence of hearing loss in children: truth or artifact? JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;143(9):935-6. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2017.1172
11. Williams TR, Alam S, Gaffney M; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Progress in identifying infants with hearing loss—United States, 2006-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(13):351-6.
12. Verhaert N, Willems M, Van Kerschaver E, Desloovere C. Impact of early hearing screening and treatment on language development and education level: Evaluation of 6 years of universal newborn hearing screening (ALGO®) in Flanders, Belgium International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology. 2008;72(5):599-608. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2008.01.012
13. Lü J, Huang Z, Yang T, Li Y, Mei L, Xiang M, et al. Screening for delayed-onset hearing loss in preschool children who previously passed the newborn hearing screening. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;75(8):1045-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.05.022
14. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Guidelines for manual pure-tone threshold audiometry [Guidelines]. 2005. Available from www.asha.org/policy.
15. Baradaranfar MH, Mollasadeghi A, Jafari Z. [Prevalence of hearing disorders in 3-6 year old children of kindergartens in Yazd city]. J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci. 2009;16(5):20-5. Persian.
16. Lotfi Y, Ja'fari Z. [The prevalence of hearing disorders among the 3-6 years old children of kindergartens in welfare organization of Tehran province]. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2001;2(1-2):7-13. Persian.
17. Absalan A, Pirasteh I, Dashti Khavidaki GA, Asemi Rad A, Nasr Esfahani AA, Nilforoush MH. A prevalence study of hearing loss among primary school children in the south east of Iran. Int J Otolaryngol. 2013;2013:138935. doi: 10.1155/2013/138935
18. Firoozbakht M, Mahmoudian S, Alaeddini F, Esmaeilzadeh M, Rafiei M, Firouzbakht A, et al. Community-based newborn hearing screening progra¬mme for early detection of permanent hearing loss in Iran: an eight-year cross-sectional study from 2005 to 2012. J Med Screen. 2014;21(1):10-7. doi: 10.1177/0969141314522992
19. Farahani F, Hamidi Nahrani M, Seifrabiei MA, Emadi M. The effect of mode of delivery and hospital type on newborn hearing screening results using otoacoustic emissions: based on screening age. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;69(1):1-5. doi: 10.1007/s12070-016-0967-3
20. Sarafraz M, Hekmat-Shoar M, Zaheri S. Determination of hearing loss prevalence in preschool children of Ahwaz. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;23(3):75-8. doi: 10.22038/IJORL.2011.282
21. Sarafraz M, Ahmadi K. A practical screening model for hearing loss in Iranian school-aged children. World J Pediatr. 2009;5(1):46-50. doi: 10.1007/s12519-009-0008-3
22. Hajloo N, Ansari S. [Prevalence and causes of hearing handicap in Ardabil province, Western Iran]. Audiol. 2011;20(1):116-27. Persian.
23. Kruppa B, Dieroff HG, Ising H. [Sensorineural hearing loss in children starting school. Results of a representative hearing screening study]. HNO. 1995;43(1):31-4. German.
24. Eziyi JAE, Amusa YB, Akinpelu OV. Prevalence of otolaryngological diseases in Nigerians. East Cent Afr J Surg. 2010;15(2):85-9.
25. Feder KP, Michaud D, McNamee J, Fitzpatrick E, Ramage-Morin P, Beauregard Y. Prevalence of hearing loss among a representative sample of Canadian children and adolescents, 3 to 19 years of age. Ear Hear. 2017;38(1):7-20. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000345
26. Al Khabori M, Khandekar R. Unilateral hearing impairment in Oman: a community-based cross-sectional study. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86(5):274, 277-80.
27. Niskar AS, Kieszak SM, Holmes A, Esteban E, Rubin C, Brody DJ. Prevalence of hearing loss among children 6 to 19 years of age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 1998;279(14):1071-5. doi: 10.1001/jama.279.14.1071
Copyright (c) 2018 Auditory and Vestibular Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.