Evaluation of phonological awareness in stutterer and nonstutterer children of aged 4 to 8 years in Tehran

  • Seyedeh Zohreh ghaffari Department of Speech therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
  • Mohammad Rahim Shahbodaqi Mail Department of Speech therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
  • Shohreh Jalaie Department of Biostatistics, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Stutterer children, phonological awareness, non-stutterer children


Background and Aim: The relationship between language and stuttering is an important issue in development of children because initiation of stuttering is generally contemporaneous with the period of rapid language development in children. Phonological awareness is part of language function which simultaneously develops with language and is the basis for oral and aural skills. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the relationship between stuttering and phonological awareness and the importance of phonological awareness in the process of evaluation and treatment of stuttering.
Methods: It was a cross-sectional comparative study. Conducted on 53 children aged 4 to 8 years in Tehran. Participants’ profile was made by examiner through interview with participants’ therapist, parents and instructor. Voice of stutterer children was recorded and the phonological awareness test was performed. Obtained data was analyzed.
Results: Regarding the scores of phonological awareness test there were significant differences between stutterer and non-stutterer groups and also between different ages (p<0.05). Scores of phonological awareness test in children with different stuttering severities were not significantly different. Children younger than 4 years had the least scores while children older than 7 years had the most and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). This shows that the score improves by aging.
Conclusion: Phonological awareness, age, type and severity of stuttering should be considered in assessment and treatment of Persian stutterer children aged 4 to 8 years old.


1. Wolk L, Blomgren M, Smith AB. The Frequency of Simultaneous disfluency and phonological errors in children: a preliminary investigation. J Fluency Disord. 2000;25(4):269-81.
2. Soleymeni Z, Saeedmanesh M, Dastjerdi M, Mehri A, Jahani Y. Relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and reading in first grade students in Tehran. Audiol. 2010;19(1):18-25. Persian.
3. James D, Raiput K, Sirimanna T, Brinton J, Goswami U. Phonological awareness in deaf children who use cochlear implants. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2005;48(6):1511-28.
4. Dworzynski K, Howell P. Predicting stuttering from phonetic complexity in German. J Fluency Disord. 2004;29(2):149-73.
5. Brutten GJ, Vanryckeghem M. Behavior assessment battery for school-age child who stutter. 1st ed. San Diego: Plural publishing Inc; 2006.
6. Silverman FH. Stuttering and other fluency disorders. 3rd ed. Long Grove IL: waveland press, Inc; 2004.
7. Ashtari A, Shirazi TS. Study and comparison of phonological awareness skills and naming speed in dyslexic and normal children. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2004;5(3):49-54. Persian.
8. Anthony JL, Lonigan CJ. The nature of phonological awareness: converging evidence from four studies of preschool and early grade-school children. J Educ Psychol. 2004;96(1):43-55.
9. Wingate ME. Foundations of stuttering. 1st ed. Academic press lnc; 2002.
10. Bajaj A, Hodson B, Schommer-Aikins M. Performance on phonological and grammatical awareness metalinguistic tasks by children who stutter and their fluent peers. J Fluency Disord. 2004;29(1):63-77.
11. Trautman LS, Healey EC, Norris JA. The effects of contextualization on fluency in three groups of children. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2001;44(3):564-76.
12. Riva-Posse P, Busto-Marolt L, Schteinschnaider A, Martinez-Echenique L, Cammarota A, Merello M. Phenomenology of abnormal movement in stuttering. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008;14(5):415-9.
How to Cite
ghaffari SZ, Shahbodaqi MR, Jalaie S. Evaluation of phonological awareness in stutterer and nonstutterer children of aged 4 to 8 years in Tehran. Aud Vestib Res. 21(2):35-41.
Research Article(s)