The prevalence of hearing impairment in high-risk infants in Kuwait
Background and aims: This is a pilot study investigated the prevalence of hearing impairment and the impact of the known risk factors for hearing loss on infants at risk born in Kuwait.
Methods: Two hundred infants with risk of hearing impairment who met the Joint Committee on Infants Hearing (1990) criteria were screened. All newborns were included in this study if they had hospital stay for more than 48 hours and at least with one of the known risk factors of hearing loss. At time of discharge from the hospital, they were referred for hearing screening at Ibn Sina Hospital, Clinical Neurophysiological Department. The hearing screening protocol included high frequency tympanometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and auditory brainstem responses (ABR).
Results: Of 200 infants, 11.5% had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). There was no significant relationship between hearing loss and gender, but there was a significant statistical relationship (p≤0.05) between hearing loss and prematurity. Of 23 infants with SNHL, positive history of hearing loss occurred in five families, SNHL detected in four of the 19 cases with hyperbilirubinemia (17.4%), 2 of the 15 cases with severe perinatal asphyxia (p≤0.05), one of the 2 cases with a meconium aspiration syndrome (p ≤ 0.05), and a single case with gentamycin ototoxicity.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hearing impairment in high-risk infants was 11.5%. About 43.48% severe prematurity (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) was a main risk factor of hearing loss. This finding should guide healthcare providers when adapting their protocols.
2. Yoshinaga-Itano C, Sedey A, Coulter DK, Mehel Al. Language of early- and later- identified children with hearing loss. Pediatrics. 1998;102(5):1161-71.
3. Martines F, Porrello M, Ferrara M, Martines M, Martines E. Newborn hearing screening project using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions: western sicily experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71(1):107-12.
4. Martines F, Bentivegna D, Ciprì S, Costantino C, Marchese D, Martines E. On the threshold of effective well infant nursery hearing screening in Western Sicily. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(3):423-7.
5. Salvago P, Martines E, Martines F. Prevalence and risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss: western sicily overview. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270(12):3049-56.
6. Martines F, Martines E, Mucia M, Sciacca V, Salvago P. Prelingual sensorineural hearing loss and infants at risk: western sicily report. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013; 77(4):513-8.
7. Martines F, Martines E, Ballacchino A, Salvago P. Speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation in prelingually deaf infants: the western sicily experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77(5):707-13.
8. Kenna M. The Ear. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, editors. Nelson textbook of paediatrics. 16th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2000. P. 1940-9.
9. Shehata-Dieler WE, Dieler R, Keim R, Finkenzeller P, Dietl J, Helms J. Universal hearing screening of newborn infants with the BERA-phone. Laryngorhinootologie. 2000;79(2):69-76.
10. The medical home. Medical home initiatives for children with special needs project advisory committee. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2002;110(1 Pt 1):184-6.
11. Martines F, Salvago P, Bentivegna D, Bartolone A, Dispenza F, Martines E. Audiologic profile of infants at risk: experience of a Western Sicily tertiary care centre. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012; 76 (9):1285-91.
12. Joint Committee on Infant Hearing 1990 position statement. ASHA Suppl. 1991; (5):3-6.
13. Marlow ES, Hunt LP, Marlow N. Sensorineural hearing loss and prematurity. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2000; 82(2): F141-4.
14. Downs MP, Yoshingata-Itano C. The efficacy of early intervention for children with hearing impairment. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999; 46(1):79-87.
15. Lutman ME, Davis AC, Fortnum HM, Wood S. Field sensitivity of targeted neonatal hearing screening by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Ear Hear. 1997; 18(4): 256-76.
16. Stein LK. Factors influencing the efficacy of universal newborn hearing screening. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999; 46(1):95-105.
17. Roizen NJ. Etiology of hearing loss in children. Nongenetic causes. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999;46(1):49-64.
18. Hess M, Finckh-Krumer U, Bartsch M, Kewitz G, Versmold H, Gross M. Hearing screening in at-risk neonate cohort. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1998;46(1-2):81-9.
19. Neault MW. Pediatric audiology. In: Wetmore RF, Muntz HR, McGill TJ, editors. Pediatric otolaryngology, principlee and practice pathways. 1st ed. New York: Thieme; 2000. p. 191-200.
20. Sheykholeslami K, Kaga K. Otoacoustic emissions and auditory responses after neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000; 52(1):65-73.
21. Amin SB, Ahlfors C, Orlando MS, Dalzell LE, Merle KS, Guillet R. Bilirubin and serial auditory brainstem responses in premature infants. Pediatrics. 2001; 107(4): 664-70.
22. Gilbey P, Kraus C, Ghanayim R, Sharabi-Nov A, Bretler S. Universal newborn hearing screening in Zefat, Israel: the first two years. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77(1):97-100.
Copyright (c) 2015 Auditory and Vestibular Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.