Research Article

Comparing the results of Persian staggered spondaic word test in persistent developmental stutterers and normal subjects


Background and Aim: Staggered spondaic words (SSW) test examines central auditory nervous system. Some researches show stuttering causes hyperactivity in motor system of the right hemisphere and cerebellum and decreases activity in the left hemisphere. During stuttering also, central auditory processing is decreased. The aim of this study was to compare the Persian staggered spondaic word test results between persistent developmental stutterers and normal subjects.
Methods: Thirty people with persistent developmental stuttering were participants of this crosssectional descriptive-analytic study, which were aged 11 to 40 years. The control group matched for gender and number with stutters. They were 8 females and 22 males, with the age of 11 to 40 years, without any stuttering history, neurological diseases and auditory disorders.
Results: Stutterers were in normal category in corrected staggered spondaic words test. The mean scores of errors of right compete, right ear, left compete, left ear and total in corrected staggered spondaic words between control and stuttering group showed significant differences. There was a significant relationship between stuttering and effect, too (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Based on the obtained results of this study, stutterers may have different cortical and subcortical brain activity than people who have not stutter. Central auditory processing abilities of stutterers are weaker than normal people.

1. Guitar B. Stuttering: an integrated approach to its nature and treatment. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
2. Blomgren M, Nagarajan SS, Lee JN, Li T, Alvord L. Preliminary results of a functional MRI study of brain activation patterns in stuttering and nonstuttering speakers during a lexical access task. J Fluency Disord. 2003;28(4):337-56.
3. Foundas AL, Bollich AM, Feldman J, Corey DM, Hurley M, Lemen LC, et al. Aberrant auditory processing and atypical planum temporale in developmental stuttering. Neurology. 2004;63(9):1640-6.
4. Blood IM, Blood GW. Relationship between stuttering severity and brainstem-evoked response testing. Percept Mot Skills. 1984;59(3):935-8.
5. Khedr E, El-Nasser WA, Abdel Haleem EK, Bakr MS, Trakhan MN. Evoked potentials and electroencephalography in stuttering. Folia Phoniatr logop. 2000;52(4):178-86.
6. Katz J. Handbook of clinical audiology. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1994.
7. Riccio CA, Hynd GW, Cohen MJ, Molt L. The staggered spondaic word test: performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Audiol. 1996;5(2):55-62.
8. Blood GW, Blood IM. Central auditory function in young stutterers. Percept Mot Skills. 1984;59(3):699-705.
9. Zalewski TR. Test-retest reliability for the SSW Number of Error (NOE) analysis in an adult population with hearing impairment. Contemp Issues Commun Sci Disord. 2005;32:120-5.
10. Newton KR, Blood GW, Blood IM. Simultaneous and staggered dichotic word and digit tests with stutterers and nonstutterers. J Fluency Disord. 1986;11(3):201-16.
11. Anderson JM, Hood SB, Sellers DE. Central auditory processing abilities of adolescent and preadolescent stuttering and nonstuttering children. J Fluency Disord. 1988;13(3):199-214.
12. Fox PT, Ingham RJ, Ingham JC, Hirsch TB, Downs JH, Martin C, et al. A PET study of the neural systems of stuttering. Nature. 1996;382(6587):158-61.
13. Hajiabolhassan F, Lotfi Y, Azordegan F. Introducing and evaluating a Farsi-language version of the staggered spondaic word test in normal hearing subject. Audiol. 2006;15(1):39-46. Persian.
14. Zeigelboim BS, Klagenberg KF, Muñoz MB, Gorski LP, Teive HAG, Santos RS. Evaluation of central auditive processing in patients with Parkinson disease. Arquivos Int Otorrinolaringol (Impr.). 2011;15(2):189-94. Portuguese.
IssueVol 22 No 3 (2013) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Developmental stuttering central auditory pathway disorders dichotic listening tests

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Fallahzadeh Z, Tahaei SAA, Hajiabolhassan F, Jalaie S, Shahbodaghi MR, Rouhbakhsh N. Comparing the results of Persian staggered spondaic word test in persistent developmental stutterers and normal subjects. Aud Vestib Res. 22(3):102-111.