Auditory attention and memory in normal hearing individuals with and without tinnitus
Background and Aim: Research shows that 13-18 percent of the people suffer from tinnitus, almost 5 percent of which, have chronic or bothersome tinnitus. Chronic tinnitus may be accompanied by anxiety, depression, insomnia, and impairment in cognitive functions such as memory and attention. The purpose of this study was to compare the verbal auditory memory and divided attention between individuals with normal hearing in two groups of with and without tinnitus aged from 18 to 55 years old.
Methods: This study were performed on 16 tinnitus patients (6 men and 10 women) aged from 23 to 53 years old and 20 healthy volunteers (3 men and 17 women) aged from 21 to 49 years old with normal hearing thresholds. Puretone audiometry (PTA), Tinnitus evaluation, dichotic auditory verbal memory test (DAVMT), Randomized dichotic digits test (RDDT), and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) were employed for all participants.
Results: Comparing the outputs of the RDDT and DAVMT tests between control and patients groups revealed no significant difference (p=0.65, p=0.21).
Conclusion: Based on the results of behavioral tests, divided auditory attention, and verbal auditory memory, which demonstrated no remarkable difference between control and patients groups, it is suggested that mild chronic tinnitus in individuals with normal hearing does not interfere in the divided auditory attention, verbal auditory memory.
2. Rossiter S, Stevens C, Walker G. Tinnitus and its effect on working memory and attention. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2006;49(1):150-60.
3. Acrani IO, Pereira LD. Temporal resolution and selective attention of individuals with tinnitus. Pro Fono. 2010;22(3):233-8.
4. Davis A, Refaie AE. The epidemiology of tinnitus. In: Tyler RS, editor. Tinnitus Handbook. 1st ed. San Diego: Singular; 2000. p. 1-23.
5. McCormack A, Edmondson-Jones M, Fortnum H, Dawes P, Middleton H, Munro KJ, et al. The prevalence of tinnitus and the relationship with neuroticism in a middle-aged UK population. J Psychosom Res. 2014;76(1):56-60.
6. Schneider BA, Daneman M, Pichora-Fuller MK. Listening in aging adults: from discourse comprehension to psychoacoustics. Can J Exp Psychol. 2002;56(3):139-52.
7. Sindhusake D, Mitchell P, Newall P, Golding M, Rochtchina E, Rubin G. Prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in older adults: the Blue Mountains Hearing Study. Int J Audiol. 2003;42(5):289-94.
8. Andersson G, Eriksson J, Lundh LG, Lyttkens L. Tinnitus and cognitive interference: a stroop paradigm study. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2000;43(5):1168-73.
9. Andersson G, Hesser H, Cima RF, Weise C. Autobiographical memory specificity in patients with tinnitus versus patients with depression and normal controls. Cogn Behav Ther. 2013;42(2):116-26.
10. Araneda R, De Volder AG, Deggouj N, Philippot P, Heeren A, Lacroix E, et al. Altered top-down cognitive control and auditory processing in tinnitus: evidences from auditory and visual spatial stroop. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015;33(1):67-80.
11. Hallam RS, McKenna L, Shurlock L. Tinnitus impairs cognitive efficiency. Int J Audiol. 2004;43(4):218-26.
12. Heeren A, Maurage P, Perrot H, De Volder A, Renier L, Araneda R, et al. Tinnitus specifically alters the top-down executive control sub-component of attention: evidence from the Attention Network Task. Behav Brain Res. 2014;269:147-54.
13. Jacobson GP, Calder JA, Newman CW, Peterson EL, Wharton JA, Ahmad BK. Electrophysiological indices of selective auditory attention in subjects with and without tinnitus. Hear Res. 1996;97(1-2):66-74.
14. Stevens C, Walker G, Boyer M, Gallagher M. Severe tinnitus and its effect on selective and divided attention. Int J Audiol. 2007;46(5):208-16.
15. Andersson G, Lyttkens L, Hirvelä C, Furmark T, Tillfors M, Fredrikson M. Regional cerebral blood flow during tinnitus: a PET case study with lidocaine and auditory stimulation. Acta Otolaryngol. 2000;120(8):967-72.
16. Burton H, Wineland A, Bhattacharya M, Nicklaus J, Garcia KS, Piccirillo JF. Altered networks in bothersome tinnitus: a functional connectivity study. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:3.
17. Schmidt SA, Akrofi K, Carpenter-Thompson JR, Husain FT. Default mode, dorsal attention and auditory resting state networks exhibit differential functional connectivity in tinnitus and hearing loss. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e76488.
18. Husain FT, Akrofi K, Carpenter-Thompson JR, Schmidt SA. Alterations to the attention system in adults with tinnitus are modality specific. Brain Res. 2015;1620:81-97.
19. Walpurger V, Hebing-Lennartz G, Denecke H, Pietrowsky R. Habituation deficit in auditory event-related potentials in tinnitus complainers. Hear Res. 2003;181(1-2):57-64.
20. Husain FT, Pajor NM, Smith JF, Kim HJ, Rudy S, Zalewski C, et al. Discrimination task reveals differences in neural bases of tinnitus and hearing impairment. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26639.
21. Granick S, Kleban MH, Weiss AD. Relationships between hearing loss and cognition in normally hearing aged persons. J Gerontol. 1976;31(4):434-40.
22. Jafari Z, Toufan R, Aghamollaei M, Asadmalayeri S,Rahimzadeh S, Esmaili M. Characteristics and effects of tinnitus among workers exposed to occupational noise. Iran Occupational Health. 2014;11(1):23-33. Persian.
23. Aghamollaei M, Tahaei SA, Jafari Z, Toufan R, Keyhani MR. Development and evaluation of the persian version of the dichotic auditory-verbal memory test in 18- to 25-year old normal individuals. Audiol. 2011;20(2):86-94. Persian.
24. Mahdavi ME, Aghazadeh J, Tahaei SAA, Heiran F, Akbarzadeh Baghban A. Persian randomized dichotic digits test: Development and dichotic listening performance in young adults. Audiol. 2015;23(6):99-113.
25. Aghazadeh J, Mahdavi ME, Tahaei SAA, Tabatabaee SM. Inter-list equivalency and reliability of the Persian randomized dichotic digits test. Aud Vest Res. 2015;24(2):21-9.
26. Mahmoudian S, Shahmiri E, Rouzbahani M, Jafari Z, Keyhani M, Rahimi F, et al. Persian language version of the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory": translation, standardization, validity and reliability. Int Tinnitus J. 2011;16(2):93-103.
27. McKenna L. Psychological Aspects of auditory disorders: cognitive functioning and psychological state. ? ed. London: City University; 1997.
28. Carpenter-Thompson JR, Akrofi K, Schmidt SA, Dolcos F, Husain FT. Alterations of the emotional processing system may underlie preserved rapid reaction time in tinnitus. Brain Res. 2014;1567:28-41.
29. Gallacher J. Hearing, cognitive impairment and aging: a critical review. Rev Clin Gerontol. 2004;14(3):199-209.
Copyright (c) 2015 Auditory and Vestibular Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.