Effect of omega-3 on auditory system
Background and Aim:Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body's various systems. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected as well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.
Methods:We searched Medline, Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 1970 and 2013.
Conclusion:Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.
2. Bourre JM. Where to find omega-3 fatty acids and how feeding animals with diet enriched in omega-3 fatty acids to increase nutritional value of derived products for human: what is actually useful? J Nutr Health Aging. 2005;9(4):232-42.
3. Calder PC. n-3 fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity-relevance to postsurgical and critically ill patients. Lipids. 2004;39(12):1147-61.
4. Stillwell W, Shaikh SR, Zerouga M, Siddiqui R, Wassall SR. Docosahexaenoic acid affects cell signaling by altering lipid rafts. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005;45(5):559-79.
5. Heinemann KM, Waldron MK, Bigley KE, Lees GE, Bauer JE. Long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are more efficient than [alpha] linolinic acid in improving electroretinogram responses of puppies exposed during gestation, lactation, and weaning. J Nutr. 2005;135(8):1960-6.
6. SanGiovanni JP, Parra-Cabrera S. Meta-analysis of dietary essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as they relateto visual resolution acuity in healthy preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2000;105(6):1292-8.
7. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002;56(8):365-79.
8. Dangour AD, Clemens F, Elbourne D, Fasey N, Fletcher AE, Hardy P, et al. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the older people and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL) study protocol. Nutr J. 2006;5:20.
9. Youdim KA , Martin A, Joseph JA. Essential fatty acids and the brain: possible health implications. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2000;18(4-5):383-99.
10. Saste M, Carver J. Maternal diet fatty acid composition affects neurodevelopment in rat pups. J Nutr. 1998;128(4):740-3.
11. Singh M. Essential fatty acids, DHA and human brain. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72(3):239-42.
12. Spector AA. Essentiality of fatty acids. Lipids. 1999;34 Suppl:S1-3.
13. Crawford MA, Golfetto I, Ghebremeskel K, Min Y, Moodley T, Poston L, et al. The potential role for arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in protection against some central nervous system injuries in preterm infants. Lipids. 2003;38(4):303-15.
14. Haubner L, Sullivan J, Ashmeade T, Saste M, Wiener D, Carver J. The effects of maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake on rat pup myelin and the auditory startle response. Dev Neurosci. 2007;29(6):460-7.
15. Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006;60(9):502-7.
16. Van Aerde JE, Wilke MS, Feldman M, Clandinin MT. Accretion of lipid in the fetus and newborn. In: Polin RA, Fox WW, editors. Fetal and neonatal physiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 2007. 225.
17. Bakewell L, Burdge GC, Calder PC. Polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in young men and women consuming their habitual diets. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(1):93-9.
18. Burdge GC, Calder PC. Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005;45(5):581-97.
19. Hibbeln JR, Nieminen LR, Blasbalg TL, Riggs JA, Lands WE. Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1483-93.
20. Halldorsson TI, Meltzer HM, Thorsdottir I, Knudsen V, Olsen SF. Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44, 824 Danish pregnant women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166(6):687-96.
21. Egeland GM, Middaugh JP. Balancing fish consumption benefits with mercury exposure. Science. 1997;278(5345):1904-5.
22. Olsen SF, Hansen HS, Sorensen T, Jensen B, Secher NJ, Sommer S, et al. Hypothesis: dietary(N-3)-fatty acids prolong gestation in human beings. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;242:51-6.
23. Olsen SF, Secher NJ. A possible preventive effect of low-dose fish oil on early delivery and pre-eclampsia: indications from a 50-year-old controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 1990;64(3):599-609.
24. Sattar N, Berry C, Greer IA. Essential fatty acids in relation to pregnancy complications and fetal development. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105(12):1248-55.
25. Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, Plasse T, Major S, Carlson SE. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(3):469-79.
26. Thorsdottir I, Birgisdottir BE, Halldorsdottir S, Geirsson RT. Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(5):460-5.
27. McCann JC, Ames BN. Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(2):281-95.
28. Akabas SR, Deckelbaum RJ. Summary of a workshop on n-3 fatty acids: current status of recommendations and future directions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1536-8.
29. Jensen CL. Effects of n−3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1452-7.
30. Grandjean P, Bjerve KS, Weihe P, Steuerwald U. Birthweight in a fishing community: significance of essential fatty acids and marine food contaminants. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30(6):1272-8.
31. Grandjean P, Weihe P. Neurobehavioral effects of intrauterine mercury exposure: potential sources of bias. Environ Res. 1993;61(1):176-83.
32. Oken E, Kleinman KP, Olsen SF, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Associations of seafood and elongated n-3 fatty acid intake with fetal growth and length of gestation: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(8):774-83.
33. Rump P, Mensink RP, Kester AD, Hornstra G. Essential fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and birth weight: a study in term neonates. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(4):797-806.
34. Olsen SF, Sorensen JD, Secher NJ, Hedegaard M, Henriksen TB, Hansen HS, et al. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet. 1992;339(8800):1003-7.
35. Lucia Bergmann R, Bergmann KE, Haschke-Becher E, Richter R, Dudenhausen JW, Barclay D, et al. Does maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation lower BMI in late infancy? J Perinat Med. 2007;35(4):295-300.
36. Carlson SE, Cooke RJ, Werkman SH, Tolley EA. First year growth of preterm infants fed standard compared to marine oil n-3 supplemented formula. Lipids. 1992;27(11):901-7.
37. Jensen CL, Prager TC, Fraley JK, Chen H, Anderson RE, Heird WC. Effect of dietary linoleic/alphalinolenic acid ratio on growth and visual function of term infants. J Pediatr. 1997;131(2):200-9.
38. Carlson SE. Arachidonic acid status of human infants: influence of gestational age at birth and diets with very long chain n−3 and n−6 fatty acids. J Nutr. 1996;126(4):1092-8.
39. Amusquivar E, Herrera E. Influence of changes in dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental and fetal fatty acid profile in the rat. Biol Neonate. 2003;83(2):136-45.
40. Amusquivar E, Ruperez FJ, Barbas C, Herrera E. Low arachidonic acid rather than alpha-tocopherol is responsible for the delayed postnatal development in offspring of rats fed fish oil instead of olive oil during pregnancy and lactation. J Nutr. 2000;130(11):2855-65.
41. Arbuckle LD, Rioux FM, Mackinnon MJ, Hrboticky N, Innis SM. Response of (n−3) and (n−6) fatty acids in piglet brain, liver and plasma to increasing, but low, fish oil supplementation of formula. J nutr. 1991;121(10):1536-47.
42. Church MW, Jen KL, Stafferton T, Hotra JW, Adams BR. Reduced auditory acuity in rat pups from excess and deficient omega-3 fatty acid consumption by the mother. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29(2):203-10.
43. Haubner LY, Stockard JE, Saste MD, Benford VJ, Phelps CP, Chen LT, et al. Maternal dietary docosahexanoic acid content affects the rat pup auditory system. Brain Res Bull. 2002;58(1):1-5.
44. Innis SM, de La Presa Owens S. Dietary fatty acid composition in pregnancy alters neurite membrane fatty acids and dopamine in newborn rat brain. J nutr. 2001;131(1):118-22.
45. Rao SS, Kale AA, Joshi SR, Mahadik SP. Sensitivity of fetus and pups to excess levels of maternal intakes of alpha linolenic acid at marginal protein levels in Wistar rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;24(3-4):333-42.
46. Roegge CS, Widholm JJ, Engeseth NJ, Wang X, Brosch KO, Seegal RF, et al. Delayed spatial alternation impairments in adult rats following dietary n−6 deficiency during development. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005;27(3):485-95.
47. Wainwright PE, Jalali E, Mutsaers LM, Bell R, Cvitkovic S. An imbalance of dietary essential fatty acids retards behavioral development in mice. Physiol Behav. 1999;66(5):833-9.
48. Genuis SJ, Schwalfenberg GK. Time for an oil check: the role of essential omega-3 fatty acids in maternal and pediatric health. J Perinatol. 2006;26(6):359-65.
49. Bongiovanni KD, Depeters EJ, Van Eenennaam AL. Neonatal growth rate and development of mice raised on milk transgenically enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Pediatr Res. 2007;62(4):412-6.
50. Cetin I, Koletzko B. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supply in pregnancy and lactation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008;11(3):297-302.
51. Salem N Jr, Litman B, Kim HY, Gawrisch K. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids. 2001;36(9):945-59.
52. Innis SM. Dietary (n-3) Fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr. 2007;137(4):855-9.
53. Breckenridge WC, Gombos G, Morgan IG. The lipid composition of adult rat brain synaptosomal plasmamembranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1972;266(3):695-707.
54. Maclean CH, Issa AM, Newberry SJ, Mojica WA, Morton SC, Garland RH, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function with aging, dementia, and neurological diseases. Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2005;(114):1-3.
55. Bourre JM, Francois M, Youyou A, Dumont O, Piciotti M, Pascal G, et al. The effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on the composition of nerve membranes, enzymatic activity, amplitude of electrophysiological parameters, resistance to poisons and performance of learning tasks in rats. J Nutr. 1989;119(12):1880-92.
56. Carlson SE. Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in infant development. Semin Neonatol. 2001;6(5):437-49.
57. Wainwright PE. Dietary essential fatty acids and brain function: a developmental perspective on mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002;61(1):61-69.
58. Wainwright PE, Xing HC, Mutsaers L, McCutcheon D, Kyle D. Arachidonic acid offsets the effects on mouse brain and behavior of a diet with a low (n-6): (n-3) ratio and very high levels of docosahexaenoic acid. J Nutr. 1997;127(1):184-93.
59. Murillo-Rodríguez E, Sánchez-Alavez M, Navarro L, Martínez-González D, DruckerColín R, Prospéro-García O. Anandamide modulates sleep and memory in rats. Brain Res. 1998; 812(1-2):270-4.
60. de la Presa Owens S, Innis SM. Diverse, region-specific effects of addition ofarachidonic and docosahexanoic acids to formula with low or adequate linoleic andalpha-linolenic acids on piglet brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters. Pediatr Res. 2000; 48(1):125-30.
61. Morse NL. A meta-analysis of blood fatty acids in people with learning disorders with particular interest in arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009;81(5-6):373-89.
62. Lauritzen L, Jorgensen MH, Olsen SF, Straarup EM, Michaelsen KF. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005;45(5):535-47.
63. Scott DT, Janowsky JS, Carroll RE, Taylor JA, Auestad N, Montalto MB. Formula supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: are there developmental benefits? Pediatr.
64. Tian C, Fan C, Liu X, Xu F, Qi K. Brain histological changes in young mice submitted to diets with different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during maternal pregnancy and lactation. Clin Nutr. 2011;30(5):659-67.
65. Kimura F, Ito S, Endo Y, Doisaki N, Koriyama T, Miyazawa T, et al. Supplementation of DHA-rich microalgal oil or fish oil during the suckling period in mildly n-3 fatty acid-deﬁcient rat pups. Lipids. 2011;46(12):1101-10.
66. Moriguchi T, Loewke J. Garrison M, Catalan JN, Salem N Jr. Reversal of docosahexaenoic acid deficiency in the rat brain, retina, liver, and serum. J Lipid Res. 2001;42(3):419-28.
67. Harauma A, Salem N, Moriguchi T. Repletion of n-3 fatty acid deficient dams with a-linolenic acid: effects on fetal brain and liver fatty acid composition. Lipids. 2010;45(8)659-68.
68. Kimura F, Endo Y, Fujmoto K, Doisaki N, Koriama T. Administration of two oils rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to rat pups of dams fed a diet high in fat and low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fisheries Sci. 2005;71(2):431-40.
69. Voigt RG, Jensen CL, Fraley JK, Rozelle JC, Brown FR 3rd, Heird WC. Relationship between omega3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status during early infancy and neurodevelopmental status at 1 year of age. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2002;15(2):111-20.
70. Makrides M, Gibson RA, McPhee AJ, Collins CT, Davis PG, Doyle LW, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301(2):175-82.
71. Banas SM, Rouch C, Kassis N, Markaki EM, Gerozissis K. A dietary fat excess alters metabolic and neuroendocrine responses before the onset of metabolic diseases. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29(2):157-68.
72. Bougle D, Denise P, Vimard F, Nouvelot A, Penniello M-J, Guillois B. Early neurological and neurophysiological development of the preterm infant and polyunsaturated fatty acids supply. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;110(8):1363-70.
73. Church MW, Jen K-LC, Anumba JI. Excess omega-3 fatty acid consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation caused shorter life span and abnormal ABRs in old adult offspring. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010;32 (2):171-81.
74. Hamidi M, Sedaii M, Fatahi J, Farahani S, Faghihzadeh S. Comparision of auditory brainstem response in children with autism and normal. AudioL. 2008;16(2):16-22. Persian.
75. Soleimanian S, Farahani S, Adel Ghahraman M, Kebriaiezadeh A, Faghihzadeh S. Effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response. Audiol. 2008;17(1):45-52.
76. Church MW, Jen KL, Dowhan LM, Adams BR, Hotra JW. Excess and deficient omega-3 fatty acid during pregnancy and lactation cause impaired neural transmission in rat pups. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2008;30(2):107-17.
77. Church MW, Jen KL, Jackson DA, Adams BR, Hotra JW. Abnormal neurological responses in young adult offspring caused by excess omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) consumption by the mother during pregnancy and lactation. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2009;31(1):26-33.
78. Murata K, Weihe P, Araki S, Budtz-Jorgensen E, Grandjean P. Evoked potentials in Faroese children prenatally exposed to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol .1999;21(4):471-2.
79. Murata K, Weihe P, Renzoni A, Debes F, Vasconcelos R, Zino F, et al. Delayed evoked potentials in children exposed to methylmercury from seafood. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1999;21(4):343-8.
80. Parra-Cabrera S, Moreno-Macias H, Mendez-Ramirez I, Schnaas L, Romieu I. Maternal dietary omega fatty acid intake and auditory brainstem-evoked potentials in Mexican infants born at term: cluster analysis. Early Hum Dev. 2008;84(1):51-7.
81. Gopinath B, Flood VM, Rochtchina E. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(2):416-21.
82. Stein AD, Wang M, Rivera JA, Martorell R, Ramakrishnan U. Auditory- and visual-evoked potentials in Mexican infants are not affected by maternal supplementation with 400 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid in the second half of pregnancy. J Nutr. 2012;142(8):1577-81.
83. Salvati S, Malvezzi Campeggi L, Corcos Benedetti P, Di Felice M, Gentile V, Nardini M, et al. Effects of dietary oils on fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation of brain membranes (myelin and synaptosomes) in rats. J Nutr Biochem. 1993;4(6):346-50.
84. Salvati S, Attorri L, Di Felice M, Campeggi LM, Pintor A, Tiburzi F, et al. Effect of dietary oils on brain enzymatic activities (2′-3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase and acetylcholinesterase) and muscarinic receptor sites in growing rats. Nutr Biochem. 1996;7(2):113-7.
85. Lee Y, Lopez DE, Meloni EG, Davis M. A primary acoustic startle pathway: obligatory role of cochlear root neurons and the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. J Neurosci. 1996;16(11):3775-89.
86. Pellet J. Neural organization in the brainstem circuit mediating the primary acoustic head startle: an electrophysiological study in the rat. Physiol Behav. 1990;48(5):727-39.
87. Bourre JM, Durand G, Erre JP, Aran JM. Changes in auditory brainstem responses in alpha-linolenic acid deficiency as a function of age in rats. Audiology. 1999;38(1):13-8.
88. Stockard JE, Saste MD, Benford VJ, Barness L, Auestad N, Carver JD. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid content of maternal diet on auditory brainstem conduction times in rat pups. Dev Neurosci. 2000;22(5-6):494-9.
89. Auestad N, Stockard-Sullivan J, Innis SM, Korsak R, Edmond J. Auditory brainstem evoked response in juvenile rats fed rat milk formulas with high docosahexaenoic acid. Nutr Neurosci. 2003;6(6):335-41.
90. Klepper A, Herbert H. Distribution and origin of noradrenergic and serotonergic fibers in the cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus of the rat. Brain Res. 1991;557(1-2):190-201.
91. Morales-Martinez JJ, Gonzalez-Pina R, Alfaro-Rodriguez A. Brainstem auditory response in the reserpinized rat. Proc West Pharmacol. 2002;45:68-70.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.