Creatine supplement affects cervical vestibular myogenic potentials in healthy volunteers
Background and Aim: Creatine is an energy-supplying protein in neuromuscular system with a protective role in relieving neurological symptoms. Since the enzymes and other mechanism involved in the conversion of creatine in the inner ear and vestibular nuclei are found in abundance, the aim of this study was to measure the effects of creatine on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) parameters.
Methods: In this double-blind study, 35 healthy males aged 20-25 were randomly divided into an interventional (given creatine monohydrate) and a placebo groups (given maltodextrin). Participants received 5 g of dissolved powders in 250 ml water 4 times/days for 5 consecutive days. Cervical myogenic potentials were recorded before and after intervention with 500 Hz tone burst in 95 dBnHL.
Results: In intervention group, cVEMP amplitudes increased from 41.86 to 55.71 μV and p13 and n23 latencies decreased from 13.81 and 22.61 to 13.32 and 21.69 ms, respectively. Also thresholds decreased from 85.52 to 81.71dBnHL. All changes were statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The improvement of VEMP parameters following consumption of creatine supplement is likely due to increased sensitivity of saccule and vestibulocolic reflex pathway in normal subjects and maybe beneficial to patients with vestibular disorders.
2. Rawson ES, Clarkson PM. Scientifically debatable: Is creatine worth its weight. Sports Science Exchange. 2003;16(4):1-6.
3. Persky AM, Brazeau GA. Clinical pharmacology of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate. Pharmacol Rev. 2001;53(2):161-76.
4. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger H. Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the' phosphocreatine circuit'for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992;281 (Pt 1):21-40.
5. Pavlath GK. Spatial and functional restriction of regulatory molecules during mammalian myoblast fusion. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316(18):3067-72.
6. Sullivan PG, Geiger JD, Mattson MP, Scheff SW. Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2000;48(5):723-9.
7. Siesjö BK, Folbergrová J, MacMillan V. The effect of hypercapnia upon intracellular ph in the brain, evaluated by the bicarbonate‐carbonic acid method and from the creatine phosphokinase equilibrium. J Neurochem. 1972;19(11):2483-95.
8. in 't Zandt HJ, Renema WK, Streijger F, Jost C, Klomp DW, Oerlemans F, et al. Cerebral creatine kinase deficiency influences metabolite levels and morphology in the mouse brain: a quantitative in vivo 1H and 31P magnetic resonance study. J Neurochem. 2004;90(6):1321-30.
9. Zhu S, Li M, Figueroa BE, Liu A, Stavrovskaya IG, Pasinelli P, et al. Prophylactic creatine administration mediates neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia in mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24(26):5909-12.
10. Bürklen TS, Schlattner U, Homayouni R, Gough K, Rak M, Szeghalmi A, et al. The creatine kinase/creatine connection to alzheimer's disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK complexes and focal creatine deposits. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2006;2006(3):35936.
11. Ryu H, Rosas HD, Hersch SM, Ferrante RJ. The therapeutic role of creatine in Huntington's disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2005;108(2):193-207.
12. Chetlin RD, Gutmann L, Tarnopolsky MA, Ullrich IH, Yeater RA. Resistance training exercise and creatine in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Muscle Nerve. 2004;30(1):69-76.
13. Bender A, Koch W, Elstner M, Schombacher Y, Bender J, Moeschl M, et al. Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Neurology. 2006;67(7):1262-4.
14. Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol Scand. 1995;153(2):207-9.
15. Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, Vangerven L, Hespel P. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;83(6):2055-63.
16. van Leemputte M, Vandenberghe K, Hespel P. Shortening of muscle relaxation time after creatine loading. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;86(3):840-4.
17. Shin JB, Streijger F, Beynon A, Peters T, Gadzala L, McMillen D, et al. Hair bundles are specialized for ATP delivery via creatine kinase. Neuron. 2007;53(3):371-86.
18. Lin YS, Wang CH, Chern Y. Besides Huntington's disease, does brain-type creatine kinase play a role in other forms of hearing impairment resulting from a common pathological cause? Aging (Albany NY). 2011;3(6):657-62.
19. Basta D, Todt I, Eisenschenk A, Ernst A. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials induced by intraoperative electrical stimulation of the human inferior vestibular nerve. Hear Res. 2005;204(1-2):111-4.
20. Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS. Clinical testing of otolith function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;871:195-204.
21. Vandenberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, Van Hecke P, Vanstapel F, Hespel P. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996;80(2):452-7.
22. Lorand L. Adenosine triphosphate-creatine transphosphorylase’ as relaxing factor of muscle. Nature. 1953;172(4391):1181-3.
23. Hall JW. New hanbook of auditory evoked potentials. 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson; 2007.
24. Bozler E. Relaxation in extracted muscle fibers. J Gen Physiol. 1954;38(2):149-59.
25. Feuer G, Wollemann M. Studies on the mechanism of actin polymerization. II. The role of ATP-creatinephosphoferase in polymerization. Acta Physiol Hung. 1952;3(2):277-96.
26. Bozler E. The role of phosphocreatine and adenosinetriphosphate in muscular contraction. J Gen Physiol. 1953;37(1):63-70.
27. Dunn-Meynell AA, Rawson NE, Levin BE. Distribution and phenotype of neurons containing the ATP-sensitive K+ channel in rat brain. Brain Res. 1998;814(1-2):41-54.
28. Zhou M, Tanaka O, Sekiguchi M, Sakabe K, Anzai M, Izumida I, et al. Localization of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit (Kir6. 1/uK(ATP)-1) in rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999;74(1-2):15-25.
Copyright (c) 2015 Auditory and Vestibular Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.