The effectiveness of family-centered early intervention based on psychological well-being on the general health of mothers of children with hearing impairment
Background and Aim: Several research studies indicate that children born with disabilities impair the general health of their parents. Therefore, it is necessary to address the emotional and psychological needs of parents of children with disabilities through rehabilitation programs. For this reason, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of family-centered early intervention based on psychological well-being on the general health of mothers of children with hearing impairment.
Methods: Thirty-two mothers of children with hearing impairment were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental (n=16) and control groups (n=16). The general health of both groups was assessed by general health questionnaire (GHQ) before the intervention as a pretest. The experimental group then participated in 12 sessions of family-centered early intervention program based on psychological well-being, while the control group did not take part. After the experimental group completed the intervention, the general health of both groups was assessed by GHQ as the post-test.
Results: Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed significant decreases in mean scores on general health and in the subscales (somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression) by the experimental group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The findings indicated that family-centered early intervention based on psychological well-being improved the general health symptoms in mothers of children with hearing impairment. Therefore, a method was proposed which designed and implemented this kind of early intervention to improve the general health of mothers of children with hearing impairment.
2. Quittner AL, Barker DH, Cruz I, Snell C, Grimley ME, Botteri M, et al. Parenting stress among parents of deaf and hearing children: associations with language delays and behavior problems. Parent Sci Pract. 2010;10(2):136-55. doi: 10.1080/15295190903212851.
3. Movallali G, Dousti M, Abedi-Shapourabadi S. The effectiveness of positive parenting program (triple p) on mental health of parents of hearing impaired children. J Appl Environ Biol Sci. 2015;5(5S):286-90.
4. Wake M, Hughes EK, Collins CM, Poulakis Z. Parent-reported health-related quality of life in children with congenital hearing loss: a population study. Ambul Pediatr. 2004;4(5):411-7. doi: 10.1367/a03-191r.1.
5. Ebrahimi H, Mohammadi E, Mohammadi MA, Pirzadeh A, Mahmoudi H, Ansari I. Stigma in mothers of deaf children. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;27(79):109-18.
6. Bruder MB. Family-centered early intervention: clarifying our values for the new millennium. Topics Early Child Spec Educ. 2000;20(2):105-15. doi: 10.1177/027112140002000206.
7. Moeller MP, Carr G, Seaver L, Stredler-Brown A, Holzinger D. Best practices in family-centered early intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing: an international consensus statement. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2013;18(4):429-45. doi: 10.1093/deafed/ent034.
8. Roberts JMA, Prior M. A review of the research to identify the most effective models of practice in early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Australia; 2006. doi: 10.1037/e506622012-001.
9. Barker DH, Quittner AL, Fink NE, Eisenberg LS, Tobey EA, Niparko JK, et al. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: the influences of language, attention, and parent-child communication. Dev Psychopathol. 2009;21(2):373-92. doi: 10.1017/s0954579409000212.
10. Weisel A, Most T, Michael R. Mothers' stress and expectations as a function of time since child's cochlear implantation. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2007;12(1):55-64. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enl020.
11. Blair C, Peters R, Lawrence F. Family dynamics and child outcomes in early intervention: the role of developmental theory in the specification of effects. Early Child Res Q. 2004;18(4):446-67. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2003.09.005.
12. Karkhaneh M, Movallali G, Mohammadi MA, Salehy Z. Effectiveness of encouragement training in alleviating depression among mothers of children with hearing impairment. Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies. 2015;2(2):53-7.
13. Hornby G. Counseling in child disability: skills for working with parents. London: Chapman & Hall; 1994.
14. Taghavi SMR. [Validity and reliability of the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) in college students of Shiraz University]. Journal of psychology. 2002;5(4):381-98. Persian.
15. Pipp-Siegel S, Sedey AL, Yoshinaga-Itano C. Predictors of parental stress in mothers of young children with hearing loss. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2002;7(1):1-17. doi: 10.1093/deafed/7.1.1.
16. Meinzen-Derr J, Lim LH, Choo DI, Buyniski S, Wiley S. Pediatric hearing impairment caregiver experience: impact of duration of hearing loss on parental stress. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72(11):1. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2008.08.005.
17. De Moor JM, Van Waesberghe BT, Hosman JB, Jaeken D, Miedema S. Early intervention for children with developmental disabilities: manifesto of the Eurlyaid working party. Int J Rehabil Res. 1993;16(1):23-31. doi: 10.1097/00004356-199303000-00003.
18. Yıldırım A, Hacıhasanoğlu Aşılar R, Karakurt P. Effects of a nursing intervention program on the depression and perception of family functioning of mothers with intellectually disabled children. J Clin Nurs. 2013;22(1-2):251-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04280.x.
19. Bowling TK, Hill CM, Jencius M. An overview of marriage enrichment. Fam J Alex Va. 2005;13(1):87-94. doi: 10.1177/1066480704270229.
20. Padrone FJ. Psychotherapeutic issues with family members of persons with physical disabilities. Am J Psychother. 1994;48(2):195-207. PMID: 8048653
21. Siklos S, Kerns KA. Assessing need for social support in parents of children with autism and Down syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(7):921-33. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0129-7.
22. Weiss MJ. Hardiness and social support as predictors of stress in mothers of typical children, children with autism, and children with mental retardation. Autism. 2002;6(1):115-30. doi: 10.1177/1362361302006001009.
23. Blumenthal JA, Sherwood A, Babyak MA, Watkins LL, Waugh R, Georgiades A, et al. Effects of exercise and stress management training on markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic heart disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293(13):1626-34. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.13.1626.
24. Hawley G, Horwath C, Gray A, Bradshaw A, Katzer L, Joyce J, et al. Sustainability of health and lifestyle improvements following a non-dieting randomized trial in overweight women. Prev Med. 2008;47(6):593-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.08.008.
25. Shaw RJ, Sweester CJ, St John N, Lilo E, Corcoran JB, Jo B, et al. Prevention of postpartum traumatic stress in mothers with preterm infants: manual development and evaluation. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2013;34(8):578-86. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2013.789943.
26. Raikes HA, Thompson RA. Efficacy and social support as predictors of parenting stress among families in poverty. Infant Ment Health J. 2005;26(3):177-90. doi: 10.1002/imhj.20044.
27. Jackson CW, Wegner JR, Turnbull AP. Family quality of life following early identification of deafness. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2010;41(2):194-205. doi: 10.1044/0161-1461(2009/07-0093).
28. Davidson JE, Powers K, Hedayat KM, Tieszen M, Kon AA, Shepard E, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004-2005. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(2):605-22. doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000254067.14607.eb.
29. Steiner AM. A strength-based approach to parent education for children with autism. J Posit Behav Interv. 2011;13(3):178-90. doi: 10.1177/1098300710384134.
Copyright (c) 2017 Auditory and Vestibular Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.