Research Article

Planning and validating a writing skill curriculum for hearing-impaired students in primary school system of Iran


Background and Aim: Academic achievement, especially in hard-of-hearing students, is hinged on their writing skills, and writing skill deficiency can adversely affect their cross-disciplinary skills. The purpose of this study was to explore and delineate the writing skill curriculum for hearing-impaired students in primary school system of Iran and to develop an exploratory model.
Methods: In the exploratory research, based on grounded theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 active members in the field of hearing loss with experience of working in special schools. The themes and sub-themes of the writing skill curriculum and the associa­tions between them were explored within three steps of open, axial, and selective coding. In order to generalize the results of the qualitative phase and validate the resulting model, a ques­tionnaire was designed and completed by 231 teachers of hearing-impaired students in special schools.
Results: The analysis process in the qualitative phase included eight themes of attention to achi­eving an optimal situation, content determination, teacher’s actions, individual differences, organizational factors, time of teaching, place, and positive consequences. In the quantitative phase, the hypotheses derived from the qualitative analysis were confirmed.
Conclusion: For hearing-impaired students who lack sufficient language skill, the mainstay of writing skill curriculum should be considering all aspects and factors affecting the improvement of this skill.

1. Kakojoibari AA, Sharifi A. The effect of hearing impairment on educational achievement of hearing-impaired students. Audiol. 2014;23(2):19-30. Persian.
2. Barth AE, Tolar TD, Fletcher JM, Francis D. The effects of student and text characteristics on the oral reading fluency of middle-grade students. J Educ Psychol. 2014;106(1):162-180.
3. Biser E, Rubel L, Toscano RM. Bending the rules: when deaf writers leave college. Am Ann Deaf. 2007;152(4):361-73.
4. Crosson J, Geers A. Analysis of narrative ability in children with cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2001;22(5):381-94.
5. Moores DF, Miller MS. Literacy publications: American Annals of the Deaf 1996 to 2000. Am Ann Deaf. 2001;146(2):77-80.
6. Wilbur RB. The use of ASL to support the development of English and literacy. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2000;5(1):81-104.
7. Antia SD, Reed S, Kreimeyer KH. Written language of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2005;10(3):244-55.
8. Paul R. Language disorder from infancy through adolescent: assessment and intervention. 3rd ed. London: Mosby Inc;2007.
9. Creswell JW. Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc; 2003.
10. Creswell JW, Miller DL. Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory Pract. 2000;39(3):124-30.
11. Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 1951;16(3):297-334.
12. Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc; 1998.
13. Schumacker RE, Lomax RG. A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge; 2010.
14. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2005.
15. Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (methodology in the social sciences). 1st ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2006.
16. Asker-Arnason L, Akerlund V, Skoglund C, Ek-Lagergren I, Wengelin A, Sahlen B. Spoken and written narratives in Swedish children and adolescents with hearing impairment. Commun Disord Q. 2012;33(3):131-45.
17. Schley S, Albertini J. Assessing the writing of deaf college students: reevaluating a direct assessment of writing. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2005;10(1):96-105.
18. Sarchet T, Marschark M, Borgna G, Convertino C, Sapere P, Dirmyer R. Vocabulary knowledge of deaf and hearing postsecondary students. J Postsecond Educ Disabil. 2014;27(2):161-178.
19. van Beijsterveldt LM, van Hell J. Lexical noun phrases in text written by deaf children and adults with different proficiency levels in sign language. Int J Biling Educ Biling. 2010;13(4):439-68.
20. McNaughton S. Meeting of the minds. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Limited. 2002.
21. Berge SS, Thomassen G. Visual access in interpreter-mediated learning situations for deaf and hard-of-hearing high school students where an artifact is in use. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2016;21(2):187-99.
22. Wolbers KA, Dostal HM, Graham S, Cihak D, Kilpatrick JR, Saulsburry R. The writing performance of elementary students receiving strategic and interactive writing instruction. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2015;20(4):385-98.
23. Kakojoibari AA, Sarmadi MR, Sharifi A. Comparison of reading literacy of hearing impaired students in three educational degrees. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2010;11(3):8-14. Persian.
IssueVol 25 No 3 (2016) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Validation curriculum writing skill primary school sample designing hearing impaired

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Sharifi A, Arefi M, Fathi Vajargah K, Kakojoibari AA. Planning and validating a writing skill curriculum for hearing-impaired students in primary school system of Iran. Aud Vestib Res. 25(3):175-182.