Research Article

Evaluation of Difference in Performance of Young Adults in Dichotic Digit Test in Tamil and Dichotic Consonant Vowel Test


Background and Aim: Dichotic listening has been defined as the simultaneous stimulation of both ears and has been used to evaluate a listener’s binaural integration/separation ability. Dichotic tests are available in various languages and use varied stimuli. The study aimed to evaluate the differential performance of Tamil-speaking young adults in two tests of dichotic perception namely Dichotic Consonant Vowel (DCV) test and Dichotic Digit Test in Tamil (DDT-T).
Methods: Sixty adults with normal hearing aged 18 to 35 years were the participants of the study. All the young adults were native speakers of the Tamil language without significant auditory history. DCV and DDT-T were administered in randomized order at 50 dB SL (re: SRT) in free recall condition. The participants were instructed to respond orally and the responses were noted.
Results: Better performance was observed in dichotic digit compared to DCV test for all participants. This was attributed to the higher number of cues available in DDT-T. Further, error analyses of participants’ responses revealed that voicing errors were higher with the highest errors in the identification of unvoiced consonant /ta/ in both ears. The reason for this could be the lack of contextual cues in DCV test for Tamil-speaking individuals to interpret the voicing feature of a consonant.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that DDT-T was more useful in assessing binaural integration ability of native Tamil speakers compared to DCV. It is recommended to be used in the behavioral test battery for evaluating auditory processing disorder in native Tamil speakers.

[1] Stevens SS, Davis H. Hearing, Its Psychology and Physiol- ogy. vol v. 10. J. 1st ed. Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, United Kingdom. 1938.
[2] Musiek FE, Chermak GD, editors. Handbook of Central Au- ditory Processing Disorder Auditory Neuroscience and Diag- nosis; Vol. I. 2nd ed. San Diego: Plural Publishing, Inc.; 2013.
[3] American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (cen- tral) auditory processing disorders [Technical Report]. 2005. Available from
[4] American Academy of Audiology. American Acad- emy of Audiology Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of children and adults with Central Auditory Processing Disorder. American Acad- emy of Audiology; 2010 [ wp-content/uploads/2021/05/CAPD-Guidelines-8-2010-1. pdf_539952af956c79.73897613-1.pdf].
[5] Katz J. The SSW test: an interim report. J Speech Hear Dis- ord. 1968;33(2):132-46. [DOI:10.1044/jshd.3302.132]
[6] Studdert-Kennedy M, Shankweiler D. Hemispheric speciali- zation for speech perception. J Acoust Soc Am. 1970;48(2):579- 94. [DOI:10.1121/1.1912174]
[7] Roberts MA, Persinger MA, Grote C, Evertowski LM, Springer JA, Tuten T, et al. The Dichotic Word Listening Test: preliminary observations in American and Canadian sam- ples. Appl Neuropsychol. 1994;1(1-2):45-56. [DOI:10.1080/09 084282.1994.9645330]
[8] Musiek FE. Assessment of central auditory dysfunction: the dichotic digit test revisited. Ear Hear. 1983;4(2):79-83. [DOI:10.1097/00003446-198303000-00002]
[9] Wexler BE, Halwes T. Increasing the power of dichotic methods: the fused rhymed words test. Neuropsychologia. 1983;21(1):59-66. [DOI:10.1016/0028-3932(83)90100-8]
[10] Fifer RC, Jerger JF, Berlin CI, Tobey EA, Campbell JC. Development of a dichotic sentence identification test for hearing-impaired adults. Ear Hear. 1983;4(6):300-5. [DOI:10.1097/00003446-198311000-00007]
[11] Willeford JA. Assessing central auditory behavior in chil- dren: A test battery approach. In: Keith R, editor. Central Au- ditory Dysfunction. New York, NY: Grune and Stratton; 1977. p. 43-72.
[12] Yathiraj A. The Dichotic CV test. Developed at All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysuru. 1999.
[13] Kishore T, Rajalakshmi K. Dichotic Rhyme Test in Telugu: A Normative Data on Adults. Student research at AIISH, Mysore (articles based on dissertation done at AIISH) Vol- ume VI 2008. P. 120-30. [ handle/123456789/884]
[14] Sangamesh C, Rajalakshmi K. Dichotic Rhyme Test in Kan- nada: A Normative Data on Adults. Student research at AI- ISH, Mysore (articles based on dissertation done at AIISH) Volume VI 2008. p. 203-16 [ lui/handle/123456789/891].
[15] Giridhar GK, Rajalakshmi K. Dichotic Rhyme Test in Malayalam: A Normative Data on Adults. Mys- uru 2010 [ dle/123456789/1010].
[16] Bharathidasan S, Rajalakshmi K. Dichotic Rhyme Test in Tamil: A Normative Data on Adults. Mys- uru 2013 [ dle/123456789/1199].
[17] Arefin S, Chatterjee I, Shahi AC, Chatterjee S, Ghosh P. Development and Standardization of Dichotic Rhyme Test in Bangla. Asia Pacific Journal of Research. 2016;1(38):87-96.
[18] Singh G, Devi N. Dichotic Word (CVCV) Test in Native Kannada Speaking Children. Student research at AIISH, Mysore (articles based on dissertation done at AIISH) Vol- ume VII 2009. p. 35-53. [ handle/123456789/929].
[19] Kumar M, Jain C. Dichotic word (CVC) test for native Hindi speaking. Mysuru 2011 [ xmlui/handle/123456789/1048].
[20] Selvaraj A, Rajeswaran R, Jayachandran D. Development of Dichotic Word Test in Tamil Speaking Children. Language in India. 2018;18(2):13-32.
[21] Sudersonam R, Vaidyanath R. Development of dichotic dig- it test in Tamil. Chennai: Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research; 2019. Unpublished dissertation.
[22] Speaks C, Niccum N, Van Tasell D. Effects of stimulus ma- terial on the dichotic listening performance of patients with sensorineural hearing loss. J Speech Hear Res. 1985;28(1):16- 25. [DOI:10.1044/jshr.2801.16]
[23] Fuente A, McPherson B, Chiang LP, Tang CH. Cantonese Dichotic Digit Test: Test Creation and Normative Values for Children and Adults. Asia Pacific Journal of Speech, Lan- guage and Hearing. 2007;10(2):105-22. [DOI:10.1179/136132 807805297602]
[24] Mukari SZ, Keith RW, Tharpe AM, Johnson CD. Develop- ment and standardization of single and double dichotic digit tests in the Malay language. Int J Audiol. 2006;45(6):344-52. [DOI:10.1080/14992020600582174]
[25] Bhargavi PG, Kanaka G. Development of dichotic digit test in Tulu. Indian J Otol. 2019;25(2):71-5. [DOI:10.4103/indian- jotol.INDIANJOTOL_119_18]
[26] Yathiraj A. Development of a Screening Test for APD. AI- ISH, Mysuru: 2012 [ dle/123456789/4079]
[27] Yathiraj A, Vanaja CS. Criteria to Classify Children as Having Auditory Processing Disorders. Am J Audiol. 2018;27(2):173-83. [DOI:10.1044/2018_AJA-17-0091]
[28] Kumar P, Mohan BM, Pavithra K, Naveen CP. Explor- ing (central) auditory processing deficits in individuals with Broca’s aphasia: Based on case study. Indian J Otol. 2016;22(2):135-8. [DOI:10.4103/0971-7749.182282]
[29] Bhuvaneshwari B, Padakannaya P. Reading in Tamil: a more alphabetic and less syllabic akshara-based orthog- raphy. In: Winskel H, Padakannaya P, editors. South and Southeast Asian Psycholinguistics. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press; 2014. p. 192-201. [DOI:10.1017/ CBO9781139084642.022]
[30] Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97- 113. [DOI:10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4]
[31] American National Standards Institute. Maximum permissi- ble ambient noise for audiometric test rooms (ANSI S3.1-1999). New York: American National Standards Institute; 1999.
[32] American National Standards Institute. Specification for audiometers (ANSI S3.6-2004). New York, NY: Author. 2004.
[33] Cahart R, Jerger J. Preferred method for clinical deter- mination of pure tone thresholds. J Speech Hear Disord. 1959;24:330-45. [DOI:10.1044/jshd.2404.330]
[34] Samuel JD. Development and Standardization of Pho- netically Balanced Test Materials In Tamil Language. Mysore: All India Institute of Speech and Hearing; 1976. [].
[35] Yathiraj A, Priyadarsini K. Effect of Training on Dichotic CV and Dichotic Digit Scores. J Indian Speech Hear Assoc. 2009;23:74-80.
[36] Prachi PP. Dichotic CV Test-Revised Normative Data For Adults. Mysore: All India Institute of Speech and Hearing; 2000 [ dle/123456789/4403].
[37] Keith RW, Katbamna B, Tawfik S, Smolak LH. The effect of linguistic background on staggered spondaic word and dichotic consonant vowel scores. Br J Audiol. 1987;21(1):21-6. [DOI:10.3109/03005368709077770]
[38] Berlin CI, Lowe-Bell SS, Cullen Jr JK, Thompson CL. Di- chotic speech perception: an interpretation of right-ear advantage and temporal offset effects. J Acoust Soc Am. 1973;53(3):699-709. [DOI:10.1121/1.1913381]
IssueVol 32 No 2 (2023) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Dichotic digit dichotic consonant vowel free recall

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Sudersonam R, Vaidyanath R. Evaluation of Difference in Performance of Young Adults in Dichotic Digit Test in Tamil and Dichotic Consonant Vowel Test. Aud Vestib Res. 2023;32(2):137-144.