Research Article

The Impact of Hearing Preservation Education on the Young Adults’ Listening Behavior


Background and Aim: High-level sounds in recreational activities are known as one of the leading causes of developing noise-induced hearing loss, particularly in adolescents and young adults. Thus, this study aimed to explore the practicality of a hearing preservation education program in modifying listening behaviors concerning recreational noise exposure and Personal Listening Device (PLD) use in adolescents and young adults.
Methods: Two hundred students, both male and female (n=100, each) between 15 and 18 years old were chosen to participate. These students engaged in the hearing preservation education program and filled in pre-education, post-education, and follow-up questionnaires. The questionnaire assessed the students’ awareness, intention, attitudes, and motivation concerning recreational noise exposure and safe PLD usage. The materials were prepared by an expert panel of audiologists and then remarked as comprehensible by teachers of the target age group.
Results: There were significant differences in preferred volume levels and preferred listening levels of PLD, as well as the duration of PLD usage among pre-education, post-education, and follow-up questionnaire measurements (p<0.001). Notably, education significantly altered the students’ awareness, intention, attitudes, and motivation concerning recreational noise exposure among the three experimental conditions (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Providing a fundamental guide and effective education to adolescents and young adults will help them to use PLD safely, expand their awareness and knowledge, and consequently revise their attitudes and listening behaviors.

[1] Rogers B, Meyer D, Summey C, Scheessele D, Atwell T, Ostendorf J, et al. What makes a successful hearing conservation program? AAOHN J. 2009;57(8):321-35; quiz 336-7. [DOI:10.3928/08910162-20090729-07]
[2] Roeser RJ, Coleman T, Adams RM. Implementing an industrial hearing conservation program in the schools. J Sch Health. 1983;53(7):408-11. [DOI:10.1111/j.1746-1561.1983.tb03149.x]
[3] Dell SM, Holmes AE. The effect of a hearing conservation program on adolescents’ attitudes towards noise. Noise Health. 2012;14(56):39-44. [DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.93333]
[4] Fligor BJ, Cox LC. Output levels of commercially available portable compact disc players and the potential risk to hearing. Ear Hear. 2004;25(6):513-27. [DOI:10.1097/00003446-200412000-00001]
[5] Griest SE, Folmer RL, Martin WH. Effectiveness of “Dangerous Decibels,” a school-based hearing loss prevention program. Am J Audiol. 2007;16(2):S165-81. [DOI:10.1044/1059-0889(2007/021)]
[6] Keppler H, Dhooge I, Vinck B. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices. Noise Health. 2015;17(78):237-44. [DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.165024]
[7] Hutchinson Marron K, Marchiondo K, Stephenson S, Wagner S, Cramer I, Wharton T, et al. College students’ personal listening device usage and knowledge. Int J Audiol. 2015;54(6):384-90. [DOI:10.3109/14992027.2014.986691]
[8] Armitage CJ, Loughran MT, Munro KJ. Epidemiology of the extent of recreational noise exposure and hearing protection use: cross-sectional survey in a nationally representative UK adult population sample. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1529. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-020-09602-8]
[9] Keppler H, Dhooge I, Maes L, D’haenens W, Bockstael A, Philips B, et al. Short-term auditory effects of listening to an MP3 player. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(6):538-48. [DOI:10.1001/archoto.2010.84]
[10] Martin WH, Griest SE, Sobel JL, Howarth LC. Randomized trial of four noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus prevention interventions for children. Int J Audiol. 2013;52 Suppl 1:S41-9. [DOI:10.3109/14992027.2012.743048]
[11] Harrison RV. Noise-induced hearing loss in children: A ‘less than silent’ environmental danger. Paediatr Child Health. 2008;13(5):377-82. [DOI:10.1093/pch/13.5.377]
[12] Lee GJ, Lim MY, Kuan AY, Teo JH, Tan HG, Low WK. The music listening preferences and habits of youths in Singapore and its relation to leisure noise-induced hearing loss. Singapore Med J. 2014;55(2):72-7. [DOI:10.11622/smedj.2014018]
[13] Danhauer JL, Johnson CE, Byrd A, DeGood L, Meuel C, Pecile A, et al. Survey of college students on iPod use and hearing health. J Am Acad Audiol. 2009;20(1):5-27; quiz 83-4. [DOI:10.3766/jaaa.20.1.2]
[14] Muchnik C, Amir N, Shabtai E, Kaplan-Neeman R. Preferred listening levels of personal listening devices in young teenagers: self reports and physical measurements. Int J Audiol. 2012;51(4):287-93. [DOI:10.3109/14992027.2011.631590]
[15] Widén SE, Holmes AE, Erlandsson SI. Reported hearing protection use in young adults from Sweden and the USA: effects of attitude and gender. Int J Audiol. 2006;45(5):273-80. [DOI:10.1080/14992020500485676]
[16] Peters RJ. The role of hearing protectors in leisure noise. Noise Health. 2003;5(18):47-55.
[17] Keppler H, Ingeborg D, Sofie D, Bart V. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults. Noise Health. 2015;17(78):253-62. [DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.165028]
[18] Folmer RL, Griest SE, Martin WH. Hearing conservation education programs for children: a review. J Sch Health. 2002;72(2):51-7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2002.tb06514.x]
[19] Folmer RL. Hearing-Loss Prevention Practices Should Be Taught in Schools. Semin Hear. 2008;29(1):068-070. [DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1021774]
[20] Randolph RF, Hudak RL, Vaught C. Communicating hearing loss information to young children effectiveness of lecture and printed materials. AAOHN J. 2003;51(10):433-8. [DOI:10.1177/216507990305101006]
[21] Bennett JA. Teaching hearing conservation to school children: Comparing the outcomes and efficacy of two pedagogical approaches: Central Michigan University; J Educat Audiol. 1999;7:29-33.
[22] Santana BA, Alvarenga KD, Cruz PC, de Quadros IA, Jacob-Corteletti LCB. Prevention in a school environment of hearing loss due to leisure noise. Audiol Commun Res. 2016;21:e1641. [DOI:10.1590/2317-6431-2015-1641]
[23] Portnuff CD, Fligor BJ, Arehart KH. Teenage use of portable listening devices: a hazard to hearing? J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22(10):663-77. [DOI:10.3766/jaaa.22.10.5]
[24] Levey S, Levey T, Fligor BJ. Noise exposure estimates of urban MP3 player users. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2011;54(1):263-77. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0283)]
[25] Chung JH, Des Roches CM, Meunier J, Eavey RD. Evaluation of noise-induced hearing loss in young people using a web-based survey technique. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):861-7. [DOI:10.1542/peds.2004-0173]
[26] Gilles A, Paul Vde H. Effectiveness of a preventive campaign for noise-induced hearing damage in adolescents. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78(4):604-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.01.009]
[27] Taljaard DS, Leishman NF, Eikelboom RH. Personal listening devices and the prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children: the Cheers for Ears Pilot Program. Noise Health. 2013;15(65):261-8. [DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.113523]
IssueVol 32 No 1 (2023) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Noise-induced hearing loss personal listening device recreational noise hearing preservation young adult and adolescent

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Sameni SJ, Rahbar N, Soleimani M, Soltanparast SS, Pourbakht A. The Impact of Hearing Preservation Education on the Young Adults’ Listening Behavior. Aud Vestib Res. 2023;32(1):39-46.