The role of age implantation on formants frequency changing in early and late cochlear implanted children: a study based on perceptual and acoustical assessments
Background and Aim: Age implantation is one of the effective factors on speech production outcomes in cochlear implanted (CI) children. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of age implantation on formant frequencies and production of three Persian vowels including /a/, /u/, /i/ in CI children.
Methods: Sixty nine congenitally deaf children who received CI were divided into three groups based on their age implantation. The first and second formant frequencies of vowels, as dependent variables, were measured by SFS software 1.2. The role of children’s age implantation and their gender, as effective factors, were analyzed using a 3 (implantation groups)×2 (gender) two-way ANOVA with a post hoc Bonferroni honest significant difference test in SPSS 16.0.
Results: The mean values of F1/a/, F2/a/, F2/u/, F1/i/, F2/i/ were significantly different among different groups (p<0.05). 100% of children who received CI before the age of 2 produced vowels correctly. Types of vowel production disorders were mostly nasalization and backing in children who received CI between the ages of 3 to 4 and after age 5. Analysis showed that the effect of age implantation on formant frequencies of vowels was significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Early age implantation (before 2) can cause an improvement of vowel production due to enhancement of F1 and F2 placement which is related to height and back-to-front movements of the tongue. Also, age implantation predicts the quality of vowel production.
2. Connor CM, Craig HK, Raudenbush SW, Heavner K, Zwolan TA. The age at which young deaf children receive cochlear implants and their vocabulary and speech-production growth: is there an added value for early implantation? Ear Hear. 2006;27(6):628-44.
3. Iwasaki S, Nishio S, Moteki H, Takumi Y, Fukushima K, Kasai N, et al. Language development in Japanese children who receive cochlear implant and/or hearing aid. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(3):433-8.
4. Spencer LJ, Barker BA, Tomblin JB. Exploring the language and literacy outcomes of pediatric cochlear implant users. Ear Hear. 2003;24(3):236-47.
5. Zamani P, Rahmanirasa A, Weisi F, Valadbeigi A, Farahani F, Rezaei M. Vowel production in Persian deaf children with cochlear implant: is the age of implantation an important factor? Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014;66(4):407-13.
6. Wu JL, Yang HM. Speech perception of Mandarin Chinese speaking young children after cochlear implant use: effect of age at implantation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67(3):247-53.
7. Verhoeven J, Hide O, De Maeyer S, Gillis S, Gillis S. Hearing impairment and vowel production. A comparison between normally hearing, hearing-aided and cochlear implanted Dutch children. J Commun Disord. 2016;59:24-39.
8. Monsen RB. Second formant transitions of selected consonant-vowel combinations in the speech of deaf and normal-hearing children. J Speech Hear Res. 1976;19(2):279-89.
9. Higgins C, Hodge MM. Vowel area and intelligibility in children with and without dysarthria. J Med Speech Lang Pathol. 2002;10(4):271-74.
10. Ladefoged P, Johnson K. A course in phonetics. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning Inc; 2010.
11. Vick JC, Lane H, Perkell JS, Matthies ML, Gould J, Zandipour M. Covariation of cochlear implant users' perception and production of vowel contrasts and their identification by listeners with normal hearing. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2001;44(6):1257-67.
12. Jalilevand N. Speech and language development in deaf children after cochlear implantation. J Res Rehabil Sci. 2013;9(7):1323-32. Persian.
13. Tomblin JB, Barker BA, Spencer LJ, Zhang X, Gantz BJ. The effect of age at cochlear implant initial stimulation on expressive language growth in infants and toddlers. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2005;48(4):853-67.
14. Miyamoto RT, Kirk KI, Svirsky MA, Sehgal ST. Communication skills in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999;119(2):219-24.
15. Geers A, Tobey E, Moog J, Brenner C. Long-term outcomes of cochlear implantation in the preschool years: from elementary grades to high school. Int J Audiol. 2008;47 Suppl 2:S21-30.
16. Fishman KE, Shannon RV, Slattery WH. Speech recognition as a function of the number of electrodes used in the SPEAK cochlear implant speech processor. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1997;40(5):1201-15.
17. Zamani P, Mousavi SM, Rezai H, Delphi V. The effect of accompanying gesture to auditory verbal training program in perception and expression of some of simple verbs to 2-3 year old children with severe hearing loss. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2014;16(9):29-35. Persian.
18. Huckvale MA. Speech Filing System. SFSwin v1.2, Dept Phon Ling Univ Coll. London, UK. 2000. http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/resource/sfs/
19. Peterson GE, Barney HL. Control methods used in a study of the vowels. J Acoust Soc Am. 1952;24(2):175-84.
20. Speake J, Stackhouse J, Pascoe M. Vowel targeted intervention for children with persisting speech difficulties: Impact on intelligibility. Child Lang Teach Ther. 2012;28(3):277-95.
21. Jafari N, Yadegari F, Jalaie S. Acoustic analysis of Persian vowels in cochlear implant users: a comparison with hearing-impaired children using hearing aid and normal-hearing children. J Voice. 2015. pii: S0892-1997(15)00224-6.
22. Ozbić M, Kogovšek D. An acoustic comparison of formant frequencies in individuals with normal hearing, profound and severe hearing impairment. Invest Linguist. 2008;16:150-62.
23. Dodd B. Differential diagnosis and treatment of children with speech disorder. 1st ed. Chichester, West Sussex: Whurr Publishers Ltd; 2005.
24. Liker M, Mildner V, Sindija B. Acoustic analysis of the speech of children with cochlear implants: a longitudinal study. Clin Linguist Phon. 2007;21(1):1-11.
25. Baudonck N, Van Lierde K, Dhooge I, Corthals P. A comparison of vowel productions in prelingually deaf children using cochlear implants, severe hearing-impaired children using conventional hearing aids and normal-hearing children. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2011;63(3):154-60.
26. Kileny PR, Zwolan TA, Ashbaugh C. The influence of age at implantation on performance with a cochlear implant in children. Otol Neurotol. 2001;22(1):42-6.
27. Ertmer DJ. Emergence of a vowel system in a young cochlear implant recipient. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2001;44(4):803-13.
28. Uchanski RM, Geers AE. Acoustic characteristics of the speech of young cochlear implant users: a comparison with normal-hearing age-mates. Ear Hear. 2003;24(1 Suppl):90S-105S.