Auditory and Vestibular Research 2016. 25(2):111-118.

Cultural adaptation and determination of validity and reliability of the Persian version of the parents’ evaluation of aural/oral performance of children questionnaire
Fateme Naghibirad, Jamileh Fatahi, Fahimeh Hajiabolhassan, Elham Faghihzadeh, Hessamaldin Emamdjomeh


Background and Aim: Parents’ evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) questionnaire is used for children within any age group and any amount of hearing loss. The pur­pose of this study was translation, cultural adap­tation, determination of reliability and validity of the questionnaire, and assessment of its scores in children with cochlear implant versus normal group.
Methods: Questionnaire was translated into Persian and was adapted to meet Iranian cultural context. After confirming face validity, the test was given to a group of normal children (n=54) and a group of cochlear implanted users (n=30). It was tested for reliability after two weeks.
Results: Test results showed high Cronbach alpha (0.91) and total inter-class correlation of 0.99 which were higher than respective values in the original version. Significant difference was seen in comparison of scores between chil­dren with cochlear implant and normal children (p=0.026).
Conclusion: Persian version of PEACH ques­tionnaire, which is the equivalence of the ori­ginal version, seems to have high validity and reliability and it is a useful tool for evaluating aural/oral performance of hearing impaired chil­dren.


Aural/oral performance; reliability; validity; cochlear implant; psychometric evaluation

Full Text:



Nelson HD, Bougatsos C, Nygren P; 2001 US Preventive Services Task Force. Universal newborn hearing screening: systematic review to update the 2001 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Pediatrics. 2008;122(1):e266-76.

Duchesne L, Sutton A, Bergeron F. Language achievement in children who received cochlear implants between 1 and 2 years of age: group trends and individual patterns. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2009;14(4):465-85.

King AM. The national protocol for paediatric amplification in Australia. Int J Audiol. 2010;49 Suppl 1:S64-9.

Niparko JK, Tobey EA, Thal DJ, Eisenberg LS, Wang NY, Quittner AL, et al. Spoken language development in children following cochlear implantation. JAMA. 2010;303(15):1498-506.

Fink NE, Wang NY, Visaya J, Niparko JK, Quittner A, Eisenberg LS, et al. Childhood development after cochlear implantation (CDaCI) study: design and baseline characteristics. Cochlear Implants Int. 2007;8(2):92-116.

Geers AE, Nicholas JG, Moog JS. Estimating the influence of cochlear implantation on language development in children. Audiol Med. 2007;5(4):262-73.

Tait M, Lutman ME. The predictive value of measures of preverbal communicative behaviors in young deaf children with cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 1997;18(6):472-8.

Dettman SJ, Pinder D, Briggs RJ, Dowell RC, Leigh JR. Communication development in children who receive the cochlear implant younger than 12 months: risks versus benefits. Ear Hear. 2007;28(2 Suppl):11S-18S.

Hermans D, Knoors H, Ormel E, Verhoeven L. Modeling reading vocabulary learning in deaf children in bilingual education programs. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2008;13(2):155-74.

Hayes H, Geers AE, Treiman R, Moog JS. Receptive vocabulary development in deaf children with cochlear implants: achievement in an intensive auditory-oral educational setting. Ear Hear. 2009;30(1):128-35.

Kumar S, Rout N, Kumar N, Chatterjee I, Selvakumaran H. Performance of Indian children with cochlear implant on PEACH scale. ISRN Otolaryngol. 2013;2013:565096.

Ching TY, Hill M. The Parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) scale: normative data. J Am Acad Audiol. 2007;18(3):220-35.

Ching TY, Crowe K, Martin V, Day J, Mahler N, Youn S, et al. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age. Int J Speech Lang Pathol. 2010;12(2):124-31.

Bagatto MP, Scollie SD. Validation of the parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) rating scale. J Am Acad Audiol. 2013;24(2):121-5.

Brännström KJ, Ludvigsson J, Morris D, Ibertsson T. Clinical note: validation of the swedish version of the parents’ evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) rating scale for normal hearing infants and children. Hearing Balance Commun. 2014;12(2):88-93.

Quar TK, Ching TY, Mukari SZ, Newall P. Parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) scale in the Malay language: data for normal-hearing children. Int J Audiol. 2012;51(4):326-33.

Emerson LP. Pilot study to evaluate children with hearing aids through PEACH and TEACH in a rural community. Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences. 2015;16(2):133-7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.