The short term-effects of both feet plantar vibration in post stroke patients balance
Background and Aim: Balance disorder is a common problem in post stroke patients. Vibration therapy is one of the interventions that is used to treat this impairment in physiotherapy. There are several studies on the effects of more affected foot plantar vibration on balance, however according to the researchers this cerebral lesion causes bilateral side effects in the body. So the aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of both feet plantar vibration on the balance of post stroke patients.
Methods: This pretest-posttest clinical study included 12 post stroke patients (8 male and 4 female, mean age 52.41 ± 9.03 years). The participants received one session of 5-min vibration stimuli (frequency, 100 Hz) to the plantar region on both feet. Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) score and plantar cutaneous sensation by Semmes Weinstein monofilament examination (SWME) were assessed before and immediately after the intervention.
Results: Mini-BESTest mean total score improved significantly (p ≤ 0.001) after both feet vibration and these results were supported by a large effect size (Cohen d = 2.83). Mean number of detected points by SWME decreased after vibration therapy (p = 0.06) but it was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that local vibration applied directly to the plantar region of both feet in post-stroke patients could be an appropriate physiotherapy intervention to improve their balance.
2. Geurts AC, de Haart M, van Nes IJ, Duysens J. A review of standing balance recovery from stroke. Gait Posture. 2005;22(3):267-81. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.10.002
3. Hosseini SA, Fallahpour M, Sayadi M, Gharib M, Haghgoo H. The impact of mental practice on stroke patients' postural balance. J Neurol Sci. 2012;322(1-2):263-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2012.07.030
4. Robertson JA, Eng JJ, Hung C. The effect of functional electrical stimulation on balance function and balance confidence in community-dwelling individuals with stroke. Physiother Can. 2010;62(2):114-9. doi: 10.3138/physio.62.2.114
5. Carey LM. Somatosensory loss after stroke. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med. 1995;7(1):51-91. doi: 10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.v7.i1.40
6. Parsons SL, Mansfield A, Inness EL, Patterson KK. The relationship of plantar cutaneous sensation and standing balance post-stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2016;23(5):326-32. doi: 10.1080/10749357.2016.1162396
7. Sui J, Shull P, Ji L. Pilot study of vibration stimulation on neurological rehabilitation. Biomed Mater Eng. 2014;24(6):2593-601. doi: 10.3233/BME-141075
8. Wanderley FS, Alburquerque-Sendín F, Parizotto NA, Rebelatto JR. Effect of plantar vibration stimuli on the balance of older women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(2):199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.10.014
9. Naghdi S, Khalifeloo M, Nakhostin Ansari N, Akbari M, Jalaie S, Jannat D. [The short term effects of plantar vibration on balance disorder after stroke]. Audiol. 2013;22(2):104-9. Persian.
10. Karimi-AhmadAbadi A, Naghdi S, Nakhostin Ansari N, Fakhari Z, Khalifeloo M. A clinical single blind study to investigate the immediate effects of plantar vibration on balance in patients after stroke. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2018;22(2):242-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2017.04.013
11. Khalifeloo M, Naghdi S, Nakhostin Ansari N, Akbari M, Jalaie S, Jannat D, et al. A study on the immediate effects of plantar vibration on balance dysfunction in patients with stroke. J Exerc Rehabil. 2018;14(2):259-66. doi: 10.12965/jer.1836044.022
12. Silva CC, Silva A, Sousa A, Pinheiro AR, Bourlinova C, Silva A, et al. Co-activation of upper limb muscles during reaching in post-stroke subjects: an analysis of the contralesional limbs. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2014;24(5):731-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.04.011
13. Balcı NC, Dogru E, Aytar A, Gokmen O, Depreli O. Comparison of upper extremity function, pain,and tactile sense between the unaffected side of hemiparetic patients and healthy subjects. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(7):1998-2001. doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.1998
14. Franchignoni F, Horak F, Godi M, Nardone A, Giordano A. Using psychometric techniques to improve the Balance Evaluation System Test: the Mini-BESTest. J Rehabil. 2010;42(4):323-31. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0537
15. King L, Horak F. On the Mini-BESTest: Scoring and the reporting of total scores. Phys Ther. 2013;93(4):571-5. doi: 10.2522/ptj.2013.93.4.571
16. Tsang CSL, Liao LR, Chung RCK, Pang MYC. Phychometric properties of the Mini-Balance evaluation systems TEST (Mini-BESTest) in community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke. Phys Ther. 2013;93(8):1102-15. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20120454
17. Birke JA, Sims DS. Plantar sensory threshold in the ulcerative foot. Lepr Rev. 1986;57(3):261-7. doi: 10.5935/0305-7518.19860028.
18. Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2005;293(2):217-28. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.2.217
19. Baraz S, Zarea K, Shahbazian HB, Latifi SM. Comparison of the accuracy of monofilament testing at various points of feet in peripheral diabetic neuropathy screening. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014;13(1):19. doi: 10.1186/2251-6581-13-19
20. Raji P, Nakhostin Ansari N, Naghdi S, Forogh B, Hasson S. Relationship between Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments perception test and sensory nerve conduction studies in Carpal Tunnel syndrom. NeuroRehabilitation. 2014;35(3):543-52. doi: 10.3233/NRE-141150
21. Tan LS. The clinical use of the 10g monofilament and its limitations: a review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;90(1):1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2010.06.021
22. Snyder BA, Munter AD, Houston MN, Hoch JM, Hoch MC. Interrater and intrarater reliability of the semmes‐weinstein monofilament 4‐2‐1 stepping algorithm. Muscle Nerve. 2016;53(6):918-24. doi: 10.1002/mus.24944
23. Middel B, van Sonderen E. Statistical significant change versus relevant or important change in (quasi) experimental design: some conceptual and methodological problems in estimating magnitude of intervention-related change in health services research. Int J Integr Care. 2002;2:e15. doi: 10.5334/ijic.65
24. Godi M, Franchignoni F, Caligari M, Giordano A, Turcato AM, Nardone A. Comparison of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Mini-BESTest and Berg Balance Scale in patients with balance disorders. Phys Ther. 2013;93(2):158-67. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20120171
25. Issurin VB. Vibration and their application in sport A review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2005;45(3):324-36.
26. Silva A, Sousa AS, Pinheiro R, Tavares JM, Santos R, Sousa F. Soleus activity in post-stroke subjects: movement sequence from standing to sitting. Somatosens Mot Res. 2012;29(3):71-6. doi: 10.3109/08990220.2012.686935
27. Hernandez-Mocholi MA, Dominguez-Muñoz FJ, Corzo H, Silva SC, Adsuar JC, Gusi N. Whole body vibration training improves vibration perception threshold in heal¬thy young adults: A randomized clinical trial pilot study. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2016;16(1):12-7.