Effects of acceptance and commitment therapy on decreasing anxiety and depression symptoms in mothers of hearing-impaired or deaf children
Background and Aim: The presence of a child with hearing impairment in the family is often problematic and needs psychological interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on the symptoms of anxiety and depression in mothers of hearing-impaired or deaf children.
Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design and with experimental and control groups. The study population comprised all mothers of hearing-impaired or deaf children of 2–6 years old in Tabriz City, Iran. Using purposive sampling method, 32 mothers of hearing-impaired or deaf children were selected and then randomly assigned to control and experimental groups (each with 16 subjects). The experimental group was treated with ACT during 8 sessions of 1.5 hours long in two weeks. The study data were collected by the depression anxiety stress scale.
Results: ACT was effective in decreasing anxiety and depression symptoms in mothers of hearing-impaired or deaf children (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Considering the results and effectiveness of ACT in reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression in mothers of hearing-impaired or deaf children, this treatment is recommended in rehabilitation centers for children with hearing problems.
2. Lertsukprasert K, Prathanee B. Aural rehabilitation for deaf children: a northeastern Thailand experience. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(3):377-81.
3. Swain J, Hancock K, Hainsworth C, Bowman J. Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of anxiety: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33(8):965-78. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.07.002
4. Bandelow B, Michaelis S. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17(3):327-35.
5. Feher-Prout T. Stress and coping in families with deaf children. Journal Deaf Student Deaf Education .1996;1(3):155-66. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.deafed.a014291
6. Montazeri A, Mousavi SJ, Omidvari S, Tavousi M, Hashemi A, Rostami T. Depression in Iran: a systematic review of the literature (2000-2010). Payesh. 2013;12(6):567-94.
7. Aliakbari Dehkordi M, Kakojouibari AA, Mohtashami T, Yekdelehpour N. The effect of positive parenting program on parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children. Audiol. 2015;23(6):66-75.
8. Lederberg AR, Golbach T. Parenting stress and social support in hearing mothers of deaf and hearing children: a longitudinal study. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2002;7(4):330-45. doi: 10.1093/deafed/7.4.330
9. Segal ZV, Williams JMG, Teasdale JD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. 1st ed. New York: Guilford; 2002.
10. Parker G, Roy K. Adolescent depression: a review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001;35(5):572-80. doi: 10.1080/0004867010060504
11. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, et al. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA. 2003;289(23):3095-105. doi:10.1001/jama.289.23.3095
12. Who.Depression and anxiety. 22 March 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression.
13. Naerde A, Tambs K, Mathiesen KS, Dalgard OS, Samuelsen SO. Symptoms of anxiety and depression among mothers of pre-school children: effect of chronic strain related to children and child care-taking. J Affect Disord. 2000;58(3):181-99. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00119-6
14. Jarollahi F, Ashayeri H, Amini SR, Kamali M. [Audiology service satisfaction and level of anxiety in parents with hearing-impaired children]. Audiol. 2011;20(1):26-35. Persian.
15. Twohig MP. Acceptance and commitment therapy: introduction. Cogn Behav Prac. 2012;19(4):499-507. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2012.04.003
16. Hayes SC, Luoma JB, Bond FW, Masuda A, Lillis J. Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behav Res Ther. 2006;44(1):1-25. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006
17. Murrell AR, Scherbarth AJ. State of the research & literature address: ACT with children, adolescents and parents. Int J Behav Consult Ther. 2006;2(4):531-43. doi: 10.1037/h0101005
18. Bond FW, Hayes SC, Barnes-Holmes D. Psychological flexibility, ACT, and organizational behavior. J Organ Behav Manage. 2006;26(1-2):25-54.
19. Eifert GH, Forsyth JP, Arch J, Espejo E, Keller M, Langer D. Acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety disorders: three case studies exemplifying a unified treatment protocol. Cogn Behav Pract. 2009;16(4):368-85. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.06.001
20. Pull CB. Current empirical status of acceptance and commitment therapy. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009;22(1):55-60. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32831a6e9d
21. Rajabi S, Yazdkhasti F. [the effectiveness of accep¬tance and commitment group therapy on anxiety and depression in women with MS who were referred to the MS association]. J Clin Psychol. 2014;1(21):29-38. Persian.
22. Mohabbat-Bahar S, Maleki-Rizi F, Akbari ME, Moradi-Joo M. Effectiveness of group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety and depression of women with breast cancer. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2015;8(2):71-6.
23. Twohig, MP, Levin ME. Acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for anxiety and depression: a review. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2017;40(4):751-70. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2017.08.009
24. Peterson BD, Eifert GH, Feingold T, Davidson S. Using acceptance and commitment therapy to treat distressed couples: a case study with two couples. Cogn Behav Prac. 2009;16(4):430-42. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.12.009
25. Bach P, Hayes SC. The use of acceptance and commitment therapy to prevent the rehospitalization of psychotic patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(5):1129-39.
26. Mantovani A, Simpson HB, Fallon BA, Rossi S, Lisanby SH. Randomized sham-controlled trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13(2):217-27. doi: 10.1017/S1461145709990435
27. Hor M, Aghaei A, Abedi A, Attari A. [The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on depression in patients with type 2 diabetes]. J Res Behav Sci. 2013;11(2):121-8. Persian.
28. Hayes SC, Strosahl KD, Wilson KG. ACT with Anxiety Disorders.in: Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune,and James D. Herbert Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. 2nd en. New York. Guilford Press. 1999. p.103-32.
29. Kowalkowski JD. The impact of a group-based acceptance and commitment therapy intervention on parents of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder [Doctoral Dissertation] Retrieved from ProQuest Database. 2012.
30. Lovibond S, Lovibond P. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. 2nd edition. Sydney: Psychology Foundation of Australia; 1995.
31. Sahebi A, Asghari MJ, Salari RS. [Validation of depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) for an Iranian population]. J Iran Psychol. 2004;1:299-312. Persian.