Effect of peripheral vestibular pathologies on reading ability and auditory-verbal memory
AbstractBackground and Aim: Auditory-verbal memory and reading problems are frequently observed in patients with vestibular disorders, but rarely considered as a cognitive consequence of vestibular disease. Many clinicians do not recognize or ignore the psychological symptoms of vestibular disease. This approach could underestimate the cognitive problems of the patients, or even led to misdiagnosis of a combined vestibular-cognitive condition. The current study aimed to assess the cognitive impact of acute vestibular disorders.Methods: A total of 71 patients with unilateral vestibular neuritis, Meniere’s disease, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo underwent a through audiologic evaluation, including otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, videonystagmography plus caloric testing, and video head impulse testing in the plane of horizontal semicircular canals. After determination of the disease, the Persian version of the dizziness handicap inventory, the Persian reading test, and Rey auditory-verbal learning test were administered.Results: There were no significant difference between the patient groups with regard to their inabilities like reading and learning problems according to their auditory verbal memory score induced by acute vertigo. However, acute vertigo can reduce the reading ability and capacity of auditory-verbal memory of the patients compared with normal subjects.Conclusion: Unilateral vestibular disorders in which patients suffer from acute rotatory vertigo could lead to reading difficulties and learning because of auditory-verbal memory impairment. The exact mechanism of vestibular impairment is not a determinant factor for these cognitive problems.
2. Hanes DA, McCollum G. Cognitive-vestibular interactions: a review of patient difficulties and possible mechanisms. J Vestib Res. 2006;16(3):75-91.
3. Popp P, Wulff M, Finke K, Rühl M, Brandt T, Dieterich M. Cognitive deficits in patients with a chronic vestibular failure. J Neurol. 2017;264(3):554-63. doi: 10.1007/s00415-016-8386-7
4. Besnard S, Lopez C, Brandt T, Denise P, Smith PF. Editorial: the vestibular system in cognitive and memory processes in mammalians. Front Integr Neurosci. 2015;9:55. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2015.00055
5. Smith PF, Zheng Y. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function. Front Integr Neurosci. 2013;7:84. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00084
6. Baek JH, Zheng Y, Darlington CL, Smith PF. Evidence that spatial memory deficits following bilateral ves¬tibular deafferentation in rats are probably permanent. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;94(3):402-13. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2010.08.007
7. Besnard S, Machado ML, Vignaux G, Boulouard M, Coquerel A, Bouet V, et al. Influence of vestibular input on spatial and nonspatial memory and on hippocampal NMDA receptors. Hippocampus. 2012;22(4):814-26. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20942
8. Brandt T, Schautzer F, Hamilton DA, Brüning R, Markowitsch HJ, Kalla R, et al. Vestibular loss causes hippocampal atrophy and impaired spatial memory in humans. Brain. 2005;128(Pt 11):2732-41. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh617
9. Shinder ME, Taube JS. Differentiating ascending vestibular pathways to the cortex involved in spatial cognition. J Vestib Res. 2010;20(1):3-23. doi: 10.3233/VES-2010-0344
10. Bigelow RT, Agrawal Y. Vestibular involvement in cognition: Visuospatial ability, attention, executive function, and memory. J Vestib Res. 2015;25(2):73-89. doi: 10.3233/VES-150544
11. Black FO, Pesznecker S, Stallings V. Permanent gentamicin vestibulotoxicity. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25(4):559-69.
12. Yardley L, Burgneay J, Nazareth I, Luxon L. Neuro-otological and psychiatric abnormalities in a community sample of people with dizziness: a blind, controlled investigation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;65(5):679-84. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.65.5.679
13. Redfern MS, Talkowski ME, Jennings JR, Furman JM. Cognitive influences in postural control of patients with unilateral vestibular loss. Gait Posture. 2004;19(2):105-14. doi: 10.1016/S0966-6362(03)00032-8
14. Risey J, Briner W. Dyscalculia in patients with vertigo. J Vestib Res. 1990-1991;1(1):31-7.
15. Aghamollaei M, Tahaei SA, Jafari Z, Toufan R, Keyhani MR. [Development and evaluation of the Persian version of the dichotic auditory-verbal memory test in 18- to 25-year old normal individuals]. Audiol. 2011;20(2):86-94. Persian.
16. Jacob RG, Furman JM. Psychiatric consequences of vestibular dysfunction. Curr Opin Neurol. 2001;14(1):41-6.
17. Silsupadol P, Shumway-Cook A, Lugade V, van Donkelaar P, Chou LS, Mayr U, et al. Effects of single-task versus dual-task training on balance performance in older adults: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90(3):381-7. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.09.559
18. Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium. Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium guidelines for the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy in Menière's disease. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Foundation, Inc. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;113(3):181-5. doi: 10.1016/S0194-5998(95)70102-8
19. Ahadi M, Rezazadeh N, Pourbakht A. Comparison of vestibulo-ocular reflex instantaneous gain and velocity regression in differentiating the peripheral vestibular disorders. Aud Vestib Res. 2017;26(4):195-201.
20. Jafarzadeh S, Bahrami E, Pourbakht A, Jalaie S, Daneshi A. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the dizziness handicap inventory. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(8):769-75.
21. Masuda K, Goto F, Fujii M, Kunihiro T. [Investigation of the reliability and validity of dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) translated into Japanese]. Equilib Res. 2004;63(6):555-63. Japanese. doi: 10.3757/jser.63.555
22. Nilipour R, Pourshahbaz A, Ghoreyshi ZS. Reliability and validity of bedside version of Persian WAB (P-WAB-1). Basic Clin Neurosci. 2014;5(4):253-8.
23. Nilipour R, Pour Shahbaz A, Ghoreishi ZS, Yousefi A. [Reliability and validity of persian aphasia battery test]. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2016;10(4):182-91. Persian.
24. Jafari Z, Steffen Moritz P, Zandi T, Aliakbari Kamrani A, Malyeri S. [Psychometric properties of persian version of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT) among the elderly]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Psychology. 2010;16(1):56-64. Persian.
25. Sinnett ER, Holen MC. Assessment of memory functioning among an aging sample. Psychol Rep. 1999;84(1):339-50. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1249