Basic and advanced theory of mind in school-aged children with cochlear implants
AbstractBackground and Aim: Theory of Mind (TOM) refers to the ability for attributing mental states and beliefs to ourselves and others, and understanding that the others’ mental states can be different from ours. However, this ability seems to be delayed in children with the history of hearing impairment. Based on the evidence, there is a mutual association between language development and social experiences. The present study aimed to assess TOM and the effect of speech therapy in 8- to 9-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs).Methods: The present study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design. A total of 18 Persian-speaking children with CIs and 18 normal children aged 8-9 years participated in the current study. Children with CIs were selected through convenience method from Amir Alam Hospital and normal peers from their play-ground. The participants had no history of sensory, anatomical, neuronal, and speech disorders. The basic and advanced TOM was assessed with Ghamarani TOM test and a comparison was done between normal children and children with CIs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 21.Results: The performance of the two groups with regard to the basic and advanced TOM was significantly different (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the duration of speech therapy and TOM abilities (r=0.46, p=0.041).Conclusion: Hearing impairment affects the ability of TOM in children with CIs. The duration of speech therapy has a positive effect on the development of TOM.
2. Adibsereshki N, Nesayan A, Asadi Gandomani R, Karimlou M. The effectiveness of theory of mind training on the social skills of children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015;9(3):40-9.
3. Astington JW, Jenkins JM. A longitudinal study of the relation between language and theory-of-mind development. Dev Psychol. 1999;35(5):1311-20.
4. Peterson CC. Theory-of-mind development in oral deaf children with cochlear implants or conventional hearing aids. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004;45(6):1096-106. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.t01-1-00302.x
5. Baron-Cohen S. The autistic child's theory of mind: a case of specific developmental delay. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1989;30(2):285-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00241.x
6. Brownell H, Griffin R, Winner E, Friedman O, Happé F. Cerebral lateralization and theory of mind. In: Baron-Cohen S, Tager-Flusberg H, Cohen D, editors. Understanding other minds: perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 306-33.
7. Happé FG. The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism. Child Dev. 1995;66(3):843-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00909.x
8. Gopnik A, Astington JW. Children's understanding of representational change and its relation to the understanding of false belief and the appearance-reality distinction. Child Dev. 1988;59(1):26-37. doi: 10.2307/1130386
9. Perner J, Wimmer H. “John thinks that Mary thinks that…” attribution of second-order beliefs by 5- to 10-year-old children. J Exp Child Psychol. 1985;39(3): 437-71. doi: 10.1016/0022-0965(85)90051-7
10. Farhadian M, Abdullah R, Mansor M, Redzuan M, Gazanizadand N, Kumar V. Theory of Mind in Bilingual and Monolingual Preschool Children. J Psychology. 2010;1(1):39-46.
11. Happé FG. An advanced test of theory of mind: understanding of story characters' thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal children and adults. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(2):129-54.
12. Valle A, Massaro D, Castelli I, Marchetti A. Theory of mind development in adolescence and early adulthood: the growing complexity of recursive thinking ability. Eur J Psychol. 2015;11(1):112-24. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v11i1.829
13. Ghamarani A, Alborzi S, Khayer M. [Validity and reliability of the theory of mind test (TOM test) for use in IRAN]. Journal of Psychology. 2006;10(2);181-99. Persian.
14. Yazdi AA, German TP, Defeyter MA, Siegal M. Competence and performance in belief-desire reasoning across two cultures: the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth about false belief? Cognition. 2006;100(2):343-68. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2005.05.004
15. Kiese-Himmel C, Reeh M. Assessment of expressive vocabulary outcomes in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids: do bilaterally hearing-impaired children catch up? J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120(8):619-26. doi: 10.1017/S0022215106001319
16. Geers AE, Nicholas JG, Sedey AL. Language skills of children with early cochlear implantation. Ear Hear. 2003;24(1 Suppl):46S-58S. doi: 10.1097/01.AUD.0000051689.57380.1B
17. Bench RJ. Communication Skills in Hearing-Impaired Children. 1st ed. London: Whurr Publishen; 1992.
18. Delkhah Z, Soleymani Z, Dadgar H, Mousavi N. [Comparison of basic theory of mind in 5-6 years Farsi speaking children with cochlear implant and normal peers]. Modern Rehabilitation. 2016;9(7):72-8. Persian.
19. Rezaei Mirhesari A, Hasanzadeh S, Ghobari Bonab B, Sheikhmohammadi A. [Relationship between the theory of mind and empathy in students with hearing impairment and those with normal hearing]. Audiol. 2014;23(5):44-51. Persian.
20. Premack D. Human and animal cognition: continuity and discontinuity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(35):13861-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0706147104
21. Russell PA, Hosie JA, Gray CD, Scott C, Hunter N, Banks J, et al. The Development of theory of mind in deaf children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1998;39(6):903-10. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00390
22. Ziatabar Ahmadi SZ, Nakhostin Ansari N, Ashayeri H. [The relationship of aspects of language and development of theory of mind in children]. Audiol. 2014;23(3):1-12. Persian.
23. Smith PK. Language and the evolution of mind-reading. In: Carruthers P, Smith PK, editors. Theories of theories of mind. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1996. p. 344-54.
24. Peterson CC, Siegal M. Deafness, conversation and theory of mind. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1995;36(3):459-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01303.x
25. Wellman HM, Cross D, Watson J. Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: the truth about false belief. Child Dev. 2001;72(3):655-84. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00304
26. Richter B, Eissele S, Laszig R, Löhle E. Receptive and expressive language skills of 106 children with a minimum of 2 years' experience in hearing with a cochlear implant. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;64(2):111-25. doi: 10.1016/S0165-5876(02)00037-X
27. Ketelaar L, Rieffe C, Wiefferink CH, Frijns JH. Does hearing lead to understanding? Theory of mind in toddlers and preschoolers with cochlear implants. J Pediatr Psychol. 2012;37(9):1041-50. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jss086
28. Szagun G. Language acquisition in young German-speaking children with cochlear implants: individual differences and implications for conceptions of a 'sensitive phase'. Audiol Neurootol. 2001;6(5):288-97. doi: 10.1159/000046134
29. Geers AE. Speech, language, and reading skills after early cochlear implantation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130(5):634-8. doi: 10.1001/archotol.130.5.634
30. Heydebrand G, Mauze E, Tye-Murray N, Binzer S, Skinner M. The efficacy of a structured group therapy intervention in improving communication and coping skills for adult cochlear implant recipients. Int J Audiol. 2005;44(5):272-80. doi: 10.1080/14992020500060404
31. Ziatabar Ahmadi SZ, Jalaie S, Ashayeri H. Validity and Reliability of Published Comprehensive Theory of Mind Tests for Normal Preschool Children: A Systematic Review. Iran J Psychiatry. 2015;10(4):214-24.
Copyright and Conflict of Interest
All submitted manuscripts should be accompanied with a statement from the author, showing there is no conflict of interest regarding that article. A conflict of interest, here, is a situation in which a medical research scientist, has competing professional or personal interests that make it difficult to fulfill his duties fairly. A conflict of interest can exist even if no unethical or improper act results from it, and can create an appearance of impropriety that can undermine confidence in the person or profession.
The right is reserved for the journal to accept or reject the submitted article or incorporate any changes deemed necessary by the editorial board to make contributions harmonize the editorial standards of the journal.
Accepted papers become the permanent property of Auditory and Vestibular Research.
The act of submitting a manuscript to the journal carries with it the right to publish that paper and implies the transfer of the copyright from the author to the Publisher.