The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy on reducing the anxiety and depression of children with hearing loss
Background and Aim: Mental health in children is a major key to success in their life. For children of any age, anxiety can strike without warning. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on reducing anxiety and depression of children with hearing impairment.
Methods: Thirty 7-11-year-old children with hearing impairment were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. The intervention in the experimental group included identifying cognitions and incentives appraisal and correction of cognitions, assessing automated thoughts and cognitive distortions, teaching and tracking cognitive distortion, teaching and recognizing illogical beliefs, and assigning tasks. To collected data needed, interview and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) were applied.
Results: There was a significant difference between control and experimental group after the intervention so that in the experimental group, a low score on depression and anxiety showed a significant reduction after the intervention (p<0.05). However, no significant change was observed in the score of the control group (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The results suggest that CBT is one of the effective methods in the field of treatment of depression and anxiety disorders of children with hearing loss. Overall, CBT can be applied to prevent negative effects of anxiety and depression on children with hearing loss.
2. Eisenson J. Language and speech disorders in children (H Alizadeh, Trans.). Tehran: Roshd Press; 2002. Persian.
3. Seifnaraghi M, Naderi E. [Specific learning disabilities stage of diagnosis and rehabilitation methods]. 2nd ed. Tehran: Arassbaran; 2017. Persian.
4. Pastor PN, Reuben CA, Duran CR. Identifying emotional and behavioral problems in children aged 4-17 years: United States, 2001-2007. Natl Health Stat Report. 2012;(48):1-17.
5. Kentish R. Challenging behavior in the young deaf child. In: Austen S, Jeffery D, editors. Deafness and challenging behavior: the 360° perspective. 1st ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2007. p. 75-88.
6. Guttmannova K, Szanyi JM, Cali PW. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problem scores cross-ethnic and longitudinal measurement invariance of the behavior problem index. Educ Psychol Meas. 2008;68(4):676-94.
7. Moores DF. Documenting the status and academic prog¬ress of deaf and hard of hearing students: an increasingly complex task. Am Ann Deaf. 2004;149(4):307-8.
8. Bieling PJ, McCabe RE, Antony MM. Cognitive-behavioral therapy in groups. 1st ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2006.
9. Pirani Z, Afshar R, Hatami A. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety in adults with hearing loss. Aud Vest Res. 2017;26(1):50-5.
10. Williams KC, Falkum E, Martinsen EW. A cognitive therapy program for hearing-impaired employees suffering from mental distress. Int J Audiol. 2015;54(4):227-33. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2014.958621
11. Sahebi A. [Metaphor-therapy: application of metaphor in cognitive restructuring]. 6th ed. Tehran: SAMT; 2014. Persian.
12. Kaviani H, Seyfourian H, Sharifi V, Ebrahimkhani N. [Reliability and validity of anxiety and depression hospital scales (HADS): Iranian patients with anxiety and depression disorders]. Tehran Univ Med J. 2009;67(5):379-85. Persian.
13. Prevention of blindness and deafness. Grades of hearing impairment [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/pbd/deafness/hearing_impairment_grades/en/ [accessed 19 October 2017].
14. Gharashi K, Sarandi P, Farid A. [The comparison of stress and marital satisfaction status of parents of hearing-impaired and normal children]. Audiol. 2013;22(1):18-24. Persian.
15. Gourley L, Wind C, Henninger EM, Chinitz S. Sensory processing difficulties, behavioral problems, and parental stress in a clinical population of young children. J Child Fam Stud. 2013;22(7):912-21. doi: 10.1007/s10826-012-9650-9
16. Movallali G, Nemati S. [Difficulties in parenting hearing-impaired children]. Audiol. 2009;18(1-2):1-11. Persian.
17. Edwards L, Crocker S. Psychological processes in deaf children with complex needs: an evidence-based practical guide. 1st ed. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2008.
18. Suárez M. Promoting social competence in deaf students: the effect of an intervention program. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2000;5(4):323-33.