Auditory and Vestibular Research Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Auditory and Vestibular Research 2423-480X <p><strong>Copyright and Conflict of Interest<br /> </strong>All submitted manuscripts should be accompanied with a statement from the author, showing there is no conflict of interest regarding that article. A conflict of interest, here, is a situation in which a medical research scientist, has competing professional or personal interests that make it difficult to fulfill his duties fairly. A conflict of interest can exist even if no unethical or improper act results from it, and can create an appearance of impropriety that can undermine confidence in the person or profession.<br /> The right is reserved for the journal to accept or reject the submitted article or incorporate any changes deemed necessary by the editorial board to make contributions harmonize the editorial standards of the journal.<br /> Accepted papers become the permanent property of Auditory and Vestibular Research.<br /> The act of submitting a manuscript to the journal carries with it the right to publish that paper and implies the transfer of the copyright from the author to the Publisher.</p> An overview of the tinnitus network activity and its clinical implications <strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, in which many cortical and subcortical areas are involved has become one of the popular subjects of neuroscience research. Neuroimaging studies have introduced the tinnitus network model to explain the involvement of auditory and non-auditory areas in this perception. In such a model, the cognitive and emotional aspects of tinnitus can be interpreted conveniently. Therefore, this paper aimed to review the neural basis of tinnitus networks, including data from neuroimaging studies, and discuss the clinical implication of this concept, as well.<br /> <strong>Recent Findings:</strong> The data from neuroimaging studies were reviewed and discussed in order to complete the overall image of tinnitus network and its correlates such as the distress network, attentional network and other cognitive mechanisms. In addition to the auditory system, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were considered to be important hubs in tinnitus distress network, especially for having important connectivity with the other networks like attention and salience networks. Moreover, the top-down control of DLPFC over the other brain areas was regarded as the most important brain area to be targeted using the non-invasive interventions and the results were compelling.<br /> <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Understanding the network model has helped in optimizing the neuromodulatison protocols like electrical stimulation techniques. Thus, the clinical implications of this model can be generalized to the other types of treatments and the outcomes might be satisfying. Samer Mohsen Akram Pourbakht ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-06 2018-08-06 27 4 Teacher characteristics affecting clinical education in Audiology <strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Clinical education is a major component of the Audiology curriculum. Clinical teachers and instructors play an important role in achieving clinical education goals. This research was conducted to survey the view point of Audiology students, teachers, and graduates about clinical teachers’ characteristics affecting clinical education.<br /> <strong>Methods:</strong> Through purposeful sampling method, 14 senior undergraduate students, 4 BSc. Graduates, and 7 teachers participated in this qualitative study. The relevant data were collected via focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. The obtained data were analyzed by conventional content analysis.<br /> <strong>Results:</strong> After data analysis and classification of codes, two main themes and some sub-themes were emerged. Themes included professional characteristics of clinical experience, educational ability and rigor as well as personality characteristics of behavior, motivation and compassion, discipline and timeliness. They were recognized as influential attributes of a clinical teacher by the study participants.<br /> <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It seems that clinical experience, educational ability, rigor, behavior, motivation, timeliness and discipline play an important role in increasing the quality of clinical education. Therefore, the choice of qualified clinical teacher is important in conducting the best clinical education course in the field of Audiology. Fatemeh Habibi Masoumeh Rouzbahani Mohammad Kamali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-01 2018-08-01 27 4 Etiology of dizziness among patients referring to an Iranian ear, nose and throat clinic <h1>Background and Aim: Dizziness is one the most common complaints of patients in the emergency rooms. It has various etiologies and can lead to falling and other life-threatening injuries, especially in the elderly. Dizziness affects the quality of life and results in negative emotional reactions. This research studied the etiology of dizziness in a three-year study.<br> Methods: This study was conducted on 650 patients with the complaint of dizziness, whose specialists suspected them of having possible vestibular involvement, referred to a tertiary audiology clinic from 2015 to 2018. Videonystagmography, electrocochleography and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were administered. Other medical tests including neu­rologic examinations, blood analysis, and brain imaging were performed based on patients’ complaints.<br> Results: This was a descriptive study of dizziness prevalence with different etiologies. Patients’ age range was 18-85 years with mean (SD) age: 42.34 (13.12), including 377 (58%) females and 273 (42%) males. Patients’ chief complaints included vertigo in 64.8%, dizziness in 20.2% and imbalance in 15.1%. Vestibular disorders were identified in 49.2% of the referred patients. The patients’ final diagnosis in order of prevalence were as follows: systemic involvement (292 cases), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (187 cases), unilateral vestibular weakness (63 cases), endolymphatic hydrops (51 cases), bilateral vestibular weakness (37 cases), central involvement (20 cases), cervical (10 cases) and migraine-associated vertigo (8 cases).<br> Conclusion: About 49.2% of the patients referred to the ENT clinic had actual vestibular involvement. Careful history taking, teamwork, and comprehensive evaluations are necessary to differentiate underlying cause and selecting appropriate treatment.</h1> Masoumeh Saeedi Mohammad Ajalloueyan Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi Mohammadreza Choobdari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 27 4 Gaps-in-noise test performance in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Hearing loss is one of the complications of the type 2 diabetes mellitus, which commonly affects the central auditory processing. Gap in noise (GIN) test is an appropriate clinical tool for evaluating temporal auditory processing. The purpose of the present research was to compare the results of the GIN test in the diabetic patients with non-diabetic participants.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, 30 subjects with type 2 diabetes (mean age=43.33, SD=4.7 years) and 30 normal hearing subjects (mean age=41.26, SD=6.2 years) were examined by the GIN test. The approximate GIN threshold and the percentage of correct answers were measured in all individuals.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The findings showed an increase in the approximate GIN threshold and a decrease in the percentage of correct answers in the diabetic group in comparison with the non-diabetic group (p&lt;0.05). In addition, the GIN threshold in the right ear was lower than the left one in the case group (p&lt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the derived results, the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus appear to have defects in the temporal resolution dom­ain the auditory stimuli and this disorder affects left ear more than right ear.</p> Ebrahim Pirasteh Negin Esmailzadeh Aghil Absalan Morteza Hamidi Nahrani Mahin Nosratzehi Shahin Nosratzehi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-09 2018-09-09 27 4 Evaluation of phonological awareness training on reading improvement and phonological awareness skills in school age children with moderate to severe hearing loss <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Reading is not only a fundamental skill in learning but also an important channel in dealing with the outside world. However, hearing impairment affects linguistic growth, including speaking and reading; development of understanding; and academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phonological awareness training on improving phonological reading and awareness in primary school children with hearing impairment.<br> <strong>Methods:</strong> The present study has a quasi-experimental design. The research was conducted as pretest, intervention and posttest. A total of 20 children with moderate to severe hearing loss were enrolled in the experimental group and 20 subjects in another group as the control. Reading and dyslexia test (NEMA) was used to assess reading improvement and phonological awareness was assessed by the phonological awareness questionnaire. The data normality was checked by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate non-parametric data.<br> <strong>Results:</strong> Based on the results, after teaching the phonological awareness strategies to the experimental group, their reading and phonological awareness scores increased significantly higher than the control group (p&lt;0.05). Also the results show higher phonological awareness scores in girls.<br> <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study showed that improvement of phonological awareness in children with hearing loss can improve and resolve their reading performance and problems.</p> Mohsen Saeidmanesh Hasan Hajavi Vahid Moradi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-16 2018-09-16 27 4 Comparing the quick speech-in-noise test results in migraineurs without aura and normal subjects <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Migraine is a relatively common neurovascular disease. Audiology studies have shown some ways of influencing migraine by the auditory pathways from cochlea to the auditory cortex. Considering that one of the most important functions of the central auditory system is speech perception in challenging conditions, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability to understand speech in noise in migraineurs without aura, and compare it with normal subjects.<br> <strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, 30 migraineurs without aura aged 17 to 41 years (mean=31.9, SD=6.89) and 30 normal individuals who were matched for age and sex with the migraine group were evaluated by quick speech-in-noise test (Q-SIN). The correlation between duration of the disease and the frequency of attacks per month and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss, as well as the role of headache severity on the scores were assessed.<br> <strong>Results:</strong> In Q-SIN test, the mean SNR loss in migraineurs without aura was greater than that in controls (p&lt;0.05). But this ability did not differ between males and females (p&gt;0.05). There was no correlation between the duration of migraine, frequency of attacks per month and the severity of headache with SNR loss (p&gt;0.05).<br> <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Migraineurs without aura sometimes have difficulties in speech perception in noise which is not affected by duration of disease, its frequency and the severity of the attacks.</p> Sabihe Amini Fahimeh Hajiabolhassan Jamileh Fatahi Shohreh Jalaie Mohammad Hosein Nilforoush ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-18 2018-09-18 27 4