Auditory and Vestibular Research 2017. 26(4):231-239.

Effect of rock climbing on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential, balance, body composition, and functional index in congenitally blind and sighted girls
Massoumeh Mirzadeh, Mehrdad Fathi, Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

Abstract


Background and Aim: Most sighted children spontaneously maintain an adequate degree of physical fitness during the course of normal daily activities. However, blind people are reported to be significantly below the physical fitness norms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of rock climbing on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP), balance, body composition, and functional index in congenitally blind and sighted female students.
Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 10 sighted and 10 blind girls aged 7-12 years were trained rock climbing for eight weeks with three sessions per week, and each session spanned 30 to 45 minutes. cVEMP latencies, dynamic/static balance, right-hand power, leg strength, and body fat percentage were recorded before and after training.
Results: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in both blind and sighted groups did not change significantly. Dynamic balance, static balance, right-hand power, and leg strength increased significantly in both the groups (p>0.05), whereas the body fat percentage significantly decreased in both groups.
Conclusion: Eight weeks of rock climbing training led to a decrease in body fat percentage and a significant increase in the functional index in sighted and blind children. This suggests that rock climbing practice can be used as a proper workout protocol for maintaining health and increasing the balance and physical strength of these individuals.


Keywords


Vestibular evoked myogenic potential; blind patients; balance; body composition; rock climbing

Full Text:

PDF

References


Berardi G. Growth, maturation, and physical activity. 2nd ed. J Dance Med Sci. 2005;9(3-4):98.

Sadeghi H, Norouzi H, Karimi Asl A, Montazer M. [Functional training program effect on static and dynamic balance in male able-bodied elderly]. Salmand Iran J Ageing. 2008;3(2):565-71. Persian.

Shomeil Shushtary S, Adel Ghahreman M, Sedaie M, Tavakoli M, Jafari M. [The effect of open and closed eyes on vestibular evoked myogenic potential]. J Res Rehabil Sci. 2013:8(8):1305-11. Persian.

Iwasaki S, Smulders YE, Burgess AM, McGarvie LA, Macdougall HG, Halmagyi GM, et al. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119(9):2135-47. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2008.05.028.

Sandhu JS, Bell SL. Effects of eye position on the vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129(2):175-8. doi: 10.1080/00016480802043956.

Reza-Zadeh N, Ahadi M, Talebi H, Gharib M, Yazdani N, Shahrokhi A. [Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP's) in children]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2011;11(5):21-5. Persian.

Moallemi M, Hajiabolhassan F, Fatahi J, Abolfazli R, Jalaie S, Khamseh F. [Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in migraine patients]. Audiol. 2011;20(1):16-25. Persian.

Trivelli M, Potena M, Frari V, Petitti T, Deidda V, Salvinelli F. Compensatory role of saccule in deaf children and adults: novel hypotheses. Med Hypotheses. 2013;80(1):43-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.10.006.

Scott SK, Sinex DG. Speech. In: Rees A, Palmer A, editors. The Oxford handbook of auditory science: the auditory brain. 1st ed. New York: Oxford university press; 2010. p. 193-214.

McAngus Todd NP. Is all hearing cochlear?—revisited (again). J Acoust Soc Am. 2006;119(5):3431-2. doi: ttp://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4786893.

Abrams DA, Kraus N. Auditory pathway representations of speech sounds in humans. In: Katz J, Medwetsky L, Burkard R, Hood L, editors. Handbook of clinical audiology. 6th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 611-26.

Todd NPM, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG. Tuning and sensitivity of the human vestibular system to low-frequency vibration. Neurosci Lett. 2008;444(1):36-41. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.08.011.

Stones MJ, Kozma A. Balance and age in the sighted and blind. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1987;68(2):85-9. PMID: 3813861

Ahmadi Barati A, Ahmadi Barati S, Ghaeini S, Behpour N, Letafatkar A. [Comparing the effect of mental, physical and mental- physical exercises on the balance capability of blind students]. J Res Rehabil Sci. 2013;9(3):415-23. Persian.

Shamsipour-Dehkordy P, Aslankhani MA, Shams A. [Effects of physical, mental and mixed practices on the static and dynamic balance of aged people]. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2011;12(4):71-7. Persian.

Buchner DM, Cress ME, de Lateur BJ, Esselman PC, Margherita AJ, Price R, et al. The effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, fall risk, and health services use in community-living older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(4):M218-24. PMID: 9224433

Bellew JW, Yates JW, Gater DR. The initial effects of low-volume strength training on balance in untrained older men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(1):121-8.PMID: 12580667

Sheel AW.Physiology of sport rock climbing. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(3):355-9.PMCID: PMC1724814

Draper N, Jones GA, Fryer S, Hodgson C, Blackwell G. Effect of an on-sight lead on the physiological and psychological responses to rock climbing. J Sports Sci Med. 2008;7(4):492-8. PMCID: PMC3761930

Janky KL, Shepard N. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing: normative threshold response curves and effects of age. J Am Acad Audiol. 2009;20(8):514-22. PMCID: PMC2749261

de Bruin ED, Murer K. Effect of additional functional exercises on balance in elderly people. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21(2):112-21.doi: 10.1177/0269215506070144.

Farsi A, Abdoli B, Baraz P. [Effect of balance, strength, and combined training on the balance of the elderly women]. Salmand Iran J Ageing. 2015;10(3):54-61. Persian.

Ismailiyan M, Marandi SM, Esfarjany F, Ghardashi Afousi A, Movahedi A. Effect of progressive resistance and balance training on upper trunk muscle strength of children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2016;17(1):84-93. doi: dx.doi.org/10.20286/jrehab-170182.

Donahoe-Fillmore B, Brahler CJ, Fisher MI, Beasley K. The effect of yoga postures on balance, flexibility, and strength in healthy high school females. J Womens Health Phys Therap. 2010;34(1):10-7.doi: 10.1097/JWH.0b013e3181d4fe51.

Senna G, Salles BF, Prestes J, Mello RA, Roberto S. Influence of two different rest interval lengths in resistance training sessions for upper and lower body. J Sports Sci Med. 2009;8(2):197-202. PMCID: PMC3761475

Grandys M, Majerczak J, Duda K, Zapart-Bukowska J, Sztefko K, Zoladz JA. The effect of endurance training on muscle strength in young, healthy men in relation to hormonal status. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;59 Suppl 7:89-103. PMID: 19258659

Fyfe JJ, Bishop DJ, Stepto NK. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables. Sports Med. 2014;44(6):743-62. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0162-1.

Nindl BC, Harman EA, Marx JO, Gotshalk LA, Frykman PN, Lammi E, et al. Regional body composition changes in women after 6 months of periodized physical training. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88(6):2251-9. PMID: 10846043

Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Alberton CL, Pinto RS, Conceição M, Cunha G, et al. Strength prior to endurance intra-session exercise sequence optimizes neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains in elderly men. Exp Gerontol. 2012;47(2):164-9. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2011.11.013.

Dashti MH. [The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students]. Zahedan J Res Med Sci (ZJRMS). 2011;13(6):40-3. Persian.

Donnelly JE, Smith B, Jacobsen DJ, Kirk E, Dubose K, Hyder M, et al. The role of exercise for weight loss and maintenance. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;18(6):1009-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2004.06.022.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.